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Rare Earths Elements in High-Tech Industries: Market Analysis and Forecasts Amid China’s Trade Embargo

ハイテク産業における希土類元素:中国の禁輸措置下での市場分析と予測

 

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The Information Network
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2021年3月US$4,995
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この調査レポートはハイテク産業向け希土類元素(レアアース)市場を調査し、中国への禁輸措置が半導体、HDD、LCD、コンシューマ―製品、グリーン技術などのハイテク産業に与える影響について分析しています。

Rare earth elements are used in CMP polishing slurries and as high-k dielectrics in the semiconductor industry.  Prices of ceria, used in STI planarization slurries increased 1300% between 2009 and 2010 because of an embargo by China, home to 97% of the rare earth mines. This report analyzes the impact of the embargo on high-tech industries such as semiconductors, HDDs, LCDs, consumer products, and green technology.



目次

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1

1.1 Rare Earth Element Characteristics 1-1
1.2 Rare Earth Element Resources 1-4
1.3 Overview of Rare Earth Element Applications 1-9

Chapter 2. Rare Earth Industry 2-1

2.1 China’ Rare Earth Industry 2-1
2.1.1  China’s Production 2-1
2.1.2  China Rare Earth Production Structure 2-5
2.1.3  China Rare Earth Consumption Structure 2-5
2.1.4  China Export of Rare Earths  2-11
2.1.5  Recent Activities Of China’s Rare Earth Industry 2-17
2.1.5.1  Consolidation Of China’s Rare Earth Industry 2-17
2.2  Rest Of World’s Rare Earth Industry 2-22
2.2.1  UNITED STATES 2-26
2.2.1.1 Mountain Pass 2-26
2.2.1.2 Utah Rare Earth Project 2-29
2.2.1.3 Bear Lodge Rare-Earth Project 2-32
2.2.1.4 Elk Creek 2-35
2.2.1.5 Bokan-Dotson Ridge 2-37
2.2.1.6 Diamond Creek 2-38
2.2.1.7 Lemhi Pass 2-40
2.2.2 CANADA 2-42
2.2.2.1 MacLeod Lake Project 2-42
2.2.2.2 Hoidas Lake 2-42
2.2.2.3 Benjamin River Project 2-43
2.2.2.4 Douglas River Project 2-45
2.2.2.5 Nechalacho Rare Earth Element Project 2-47
2.2.2.6 Archie Lake 2-53
2.2.2.7 Bulstrode Rare Earth Property 2-54
2.2.2.8 Mount Copeland 2-55
2.2.2.9 Cross Hills Newfoundland 2-56
2.2.2.10 Kipawa 2-57
2.2.2.11 Strange Lake 2-58
2.2.2.12 Ytterby 2-59
2.2.2.13 Grevet REE 2-60
2.2.2.14 Turner Falls 2-62
2.2.3 SOUTH AFRICA 2-63
2.2.3.1 Steenkampskraal Mine South Africa 2-63
2.2.4 AUSTRALIA 2-66
2.2.4.1 Nolans Bore 2-66
2.2.4.2 Mount Weld 2-69
2.2.4.3 Jungle Well/ Laverton 2-71
2.2.5 GREENLAND 2-71
2.2.5.1 Kvanefjeld Project 2-71
2.2.6 ARGENTINA 2-74
2.2.6.1 Cueva del Chacho 2-74
2.2.6.2 Susques Property - Jujuy Province 2-76
2.2.6.3 John Galt Project 2-77
2.2.7 INDIA 2-78
2.2.7.1 Indian Rare Earth 2-78
2.2.8 RUSSIA 2-79
2.2.8.1 Kutessay II 2-79
2.3  Profiles of Mining Corporations 2-81

Chapter 3  Rare Earth Market Analysis 3-1

3.1  Overview
3.2  Rare Earth Market 3-4
3.2.1 Domestic Production and Consumption 3-4
3.2.2 China Production and Consumption 3-10
3.3 Global Rare Earth Market Analysis 3-15

Chapter 4  Impact on Hi-Tech Applications 4-1

4.1 Semiconductors 4-1
4.1.1 Technology Impacted 4-1
4.1.1.1 High-k Dielectrics 4-1
4.1.1.2 Polishing Powders 4-9
4.1.2 Rare Earth Material Used 4-12
4.1.3 Market Forecast of Impacted Semiconductor Devices/Materials 4-12
4.2 Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) 4-14
4.2.1 Technology Impacted 4-14
4.2.1.1 Neo Magnets for HDDs 4-16
4.2.1.2 High Strength Glass Substrates 4-19
4.2.1. 3  Polishing Materials 4-19
4.2.2 Rare Earth Material Used 4-20
4.2.3 Market Forecast of Impacted HDD Devices/Materials 4-22
4.3 Displays - FPD/CRT 4-27
4.3.1 Technology Impacted 4-27
4.3.1.1 Polishing Materials 4-27
4.3.1.2 Phosphors 4-29
4.3.2 Rare Earth Material Used 4-33
4.3.3 Market Forecast of Impacted CRT/FPD Devices/Materials 4-34
4.4 Mobile and Mobile Internet Devices 4-39
4.4.1 Technology Impacted 4-39
4.4.2 Rare Earth Material Used 4-39
4.4.3 Market Forecast of Impacted Mobile Devices/Materials 4-40
4.5 Solid State Lighting ? LED/CFL 4-43
4.5.1 Technology Impacted 4-43
4.5.1.1 Phosphors for Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 4-43
4.5.1.2 Phosphors for Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) 4-49
4.5.2 Rare Earth Material Used 4-52
4.5.3 Market Forecast of Impacted LED Devices/Materials 4-53
4.6 Green Technology 4-56
4.6.1 Technology Impacted 4-56
4.6.1.1 Rare Earths for Hybrid Vehicle Batteries (NiMH) 4-56
4.6.1.2 Neo Magnets for Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motors and Brakes 4-59
4.6.1.3 Neo Magnets for Wind Turbines 4-61
4.6.1.4 Catalytic Converter for Automobiles 4-65
4.6.2 Rare Earth Material Used 4-67
4.6.3 Market Forecast of Impacted Green Devices/Materials 4-70
4.6.4 Other Green Technologies 4-76

Chapter 5. U.S Strategic Metal Perspective 5-1

5.1 The Application of Rare Earth Metals in National Defense  5-1
5.2 Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential  5-3
5.3 Supply Chain Issues  5-6
5.4 Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress 5-10
5.4.1 H.R. 6160, Rare Earths And Critical Materials Revitalization Act Of 2010 5-10
5.4.2 H.R. 4866, the Rare Earths Transformation Act of 2010 5-11
5.4.3 S.  3521,  Rare  Earths  Supply  Technology  and  Resources Transformation Act of 2010
5-13
5.4.4 H.R.  5136,  the  Fiscal  Year  2011  National  Defense Authorization Act 5-13
5.4.5 P.L. 111-84, the Fiscal Year 2010 National Defense Authorization Act 5-15
5.4.6 H.R.  1960,  National  Defense  Authorization  Act  (NDAA)  for FY2014
5.5 Possible Policy Options 5-16
5.5.1 Authorize And Appropriate Funding For A USGS Assessment 5-16
5.5.2 Support And Encourage Greater Exploration For REE 5-16
5.5.3 Challenge China On Its Export Policy 5-17
5.5.4 Establish A Stockpile 5-17

Chapter 6 European Strategic Metal Perspective 6-1

6.1 Assessing Criticality  6-1
6.1.1  Geological And Technical Availability  6-1
6.1.2  Key Terms And Definitions  6-2
6.1.3  Geological Availability  6-3
6.1.4  Technological Development 6-5
6.1.5 Geopolitical-Economic Availability 6-6
6.2 Results And List Of Critical Raw Materials 6-7
6.2.1 Economic Importance And Supply Risks  6-7
6.2.2  Future Perspectives On Raw Material Demand ? Implications Of Technological Change.
6-11
6.2.3  Emerging technologies and raw materials 6-12

Chapter 7 Rebuilding a U.S. Supply Chain

7.1 Non-Chinese Sources of New Rare Earths 7-1
7.2 Impact of Price Hikes by Application 7-13

List of Tables

1.1  Selected Rare Earth Element Bearing Products 1-11
1.2 Rare Earths Elements And Some Of Their End Uses 1-13
2.1 Rare Earth Prices 2-16
2.2 Global Capacity Of Rare Earth Oxides ? 2010 2-24
2.3 Global Capacity Of Rare Earth Oxides ? 2014 2-25
3.1 U.S. Rare Earth Statistics  3-5
3.2 Rare Earth Prices 3-9
3.3 Rare Earth Elements: World Production And Reserves 3-12
3.4 Rare Earth Oxide Capacity  3-16
3.5 Rare Earth Oxide Capacity 3-17
3.6 Rare Earth Oxide Demand-Supply  3-18
3.7 Rare Earth Composition By End Use 3-26
4.1 Properties Of Rare Earth Ln2O3 Oxides 4-4
4.2 Forecast of CMP Slurry  4-13
4.3 Demand of Rare Earths for Neo Magnets 4-21
4.4 Market Forecast for Hard Disk Drives by Size 4-23
4.5 Market Forecast For Ceria Slurry For Glass Disks 4-26
4.6 Demand of Rare Earths for Polishing Compounts for FPD/CRT 4-36
4.7 Demand of Rare Earths for Phosphors for FPD/CRT 4-37
4.8 Market Forecast of FPD/CRT by Type 4-38
4.9 Market Forecast of Mobile/MID by Type 4-41
4.10 Demand of Rare Earths for Phosphors for CFLs 4-54
4.11 Market forecast of Backlight LEDs by Application 4-55
4.12 Demand of Rare Earths for NiMH Batteries 4-71
4.13 Demand of Rare Earths for Neo Magnets 4-72
4.14 Demand for Rare Earths for Automobile Catalysts 4-73
5.1 Rare Earth Elements: World Production And Reserves 5-5
6.1 Rare Earth Applications 6-9
6.2 Global Metal Production 6-10

List of Figures

1.1 Periodic Table Of Rare Earth Elements 1-2
1.2 Abundance Of The Rare Earth Elements 1-5
1.3 Rare Earth Production Since 1950 1-8
1.4 China’s Rare Earth Dominance 1-10
2.1 Rare Earth Proportion And Distribution In China 2-3
2.2 Production Of Rare Earth Concentrates Since 1994 2-6
2.3 Production Of Smelting Separation Products Since 1999 2-7
2.4 Production Of Rare Earth Metals Since 1988 2-8
2.5 Production Of Rare Earth Oxides Since 1950 2-9
2.6 Consumption Of Rare Earths Since 1990 2-10
2.7 Consumption Structure Of China From 1988  2-12
2.8 Gross Volume Of Exports From 1979  2-13
2.9 Gross Value Of Exports From 1979  2-14
3.1 U.S. Distribution Of Refined Rare Earth Products 3-6
3.2 Rare-Earth Price Index 3-8
3.3 Comparison Of Rare Earth Consumption .Between China And The World 3-14
3.4 Global Supply-Demand Forecast 3-19
3.5 ROW Supply-Demand Forecast 3-20
3.6 REO Distribution By Weight - 2010 3-21
3.7 REO Distribution By Revenue - 2010 3-22
3.8 REO Distribution By Weight - 2014 3-24
3.9 REO Distribution By Revenue - 2014 3-25
3.10 REE Composition By End Use 3-27
3.11 Approximate Percentage Content Of Current And Prospective Ores 3-28
4.1 Illustration of MOSFET and Gate Oxide 4-2
4.2 STI CMP Using Ceria 4-10
4.3 HDD Drive and Neo Magnets 4-17
4.4 Glass Media Drive Forecast 4-24
4.5 Market Forecast For Neo Magnets 4-25
4.6 Illustration of Phosphors in PDPs 4-31
4.7 Market Forecast For Neo Magnets 4-42
4.8 Traditional Design of a 5-mm white LED 4-45
4.9 Scattered Photon Extraction white LED 4-46
4.10 Supply Chain for Fluorescent Lighting 4-51
4.11 Rare Earths Used in Hybrid Vehicles 4-57
4.12 Hybrid Vehicle Battery (NiMH)  4-58
4.13 Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motor and Brakes 4-60
4.14 Wind Turbine Motor 4-62
4.15 Supply Chain for Permanent Magnets 4-64
4.16 Catalytic Converter for Automobiles 4-66
4.17 Forecast of Hybrid Vehicles 4-74
4.18 Forecast of Wind Generators 4-75
6.1 Supply Of Strategic Metals To The European Union 6-4

 

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