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ALD/高誘電率金属前駆体

ALD / High K Metal Precursors

 

出版社 出版年月電子版価格 ページ数
Techcet
テクセット社
2019年6月US$8,468
サイトライセンス
136

サマリー

米国の半導体材料専門の調査会社テクセット社の調査レポート「ALD/高誘電率金属前駆体」は、高誘電/ALD金属前駆体(プレカーサ)市場を詳細に調査・分析しています。

ALD Precursors主な掲載内容(目次より抜粋)

  1. エグゼクティブサマリー
  2. 調査範囲
  3. 市場展望
  4. 材料動向
  5. サプライヤの市場環境
  6. サブサプライヤの材料サプライチェーン
  7. サプライヤ情報

Product Description

The High K / ALD Metal Precursors report provides information on the applications and markets associated with front end and back end of line precursors used to produce high dielectric constant (K) dielectrics and atomic layer deposition metal oxides and nitrides.



目次

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary ....................................... 10

1.1 Highlight Material Segment Business Trends (M&A, plant closures, new suppliers, etc.) . 10
1.2 Highlight Material Segment Technology Trends ........................ 12
1.3 5-Year Material Segment Forecast ................................ 13
1.4 EHS/Logistics ........................................... 15
1.5 Concludes with analyst assessment of the covered materials market ............. 16

2 Scope ................................................ 17

2.1 Scope................................................. 17
2.2 Purpose ................................................ 17
2.3 Methodology ............................................ 17

3 Market Outlook........................................ 18

3.1 Worldwide Economy ....................................... 18
3.2 Electronic Goods Market ..................................... 24
3.3 IT / Data Systems ......................................... 24
3.4 Smart Phone Market ....................................... 25
3.5 PC Computers ........................................... 27
3.6 Automotive .............................................. 27
3.7 Semiconductor Device Outlook ................................. 29
3.8 Equipment Spending and Fab and Capital Investments .................... 32
3.9 MEMS & Legacy Devices ..................................... 36
3.10 Wafer Start Forecast ....................................... 37
3.11 Overall China Market News and Trends ............................ 39
3.12 Semiconductor Market Overview Summary ........................ 41

4 Material Segment Trends................................... 42

4.1 Fab Material Supply/Demand .................................... 42
4.2 Identify raw material shortages and supply chain constraints .................. 43
4.2.1 Tungsten ............................................... 43
4.2.2 Tantalum (and Niobium) ....................................... 45
4.2.3 Zirconium & Hafnium ......................................... 47
4.2.4 Cobalt................................................. 48
4.2.5 Ruthenium and Platinum Group Metals (PGM) .........................49
4.2.6 Rare Earth.............................................. 50
4.3 Technical drivers/material change & transitions ......................... 52
4.3.1 Material trends for the leading-edge ............................... 53
4.3.2 Multi-patterning & EUV Lithography............................... 53
4.4 Interconnect Trends ........................................ 59
4.4.1 Copper Interconnect ..........................................60
4.4.2 Cobalt interconnects, liners, and caps ................................62
4.4.3 Ruthenium Interconnects ...................................... 67
4.4.4 Manganese Barrier Metal ......................................68
4.5 Logic Transistor Evolution ..................................... 69
4.5.1 5 nm and beyond.......................................... 75
4.6 Extending FinFET to Horizonal Nanowires GAA FETs .................... 77
4.7 Realizing vertical Logic - Going vertical (2.5/3D) ......................... 82
4.8 Memory Evolution & Future Trends .............................. 85
4.8.1 DRAM................................................. 85
4.8.2 2D to 3D NAND transition ..................................... 88
4.8.3 Trends/impact/status of legacy materials .......................... 93
4.9 Comment on Regional trends/drivers ............................... 95
4.10 EHS and, if possible, Logistics issues* .............................. 96
4.11 Tungsten .............................................. 96
4.12 Titanium ............................................ 97
4.13 Zirconium and Hafnium ...................................... 97
4.14 Cobalt ................................................ 98
4.15 Ruthenium ............................................ 99
4.16 Changes in standard packaging/valve types ........................ 99

5 Supplier Market Landscape ................................. 100

5.1 M&A Activity .......................................... 100
5.1.1 Linde-Praxair ............................................. 100
5.1.2 DowDuPont ............................................ 100
5.1.3 Versum Materials takeover deal by Merck KGaA........................ 101
5.1.4 MPD Chemicals acquires Norquay Technology .......................... 101
5.2 New plants/New entrants .................................... 102
5.3 Identify recently closed plants or ”to be” closed plants ................... 102
5.4 New entrants .......................................... 102
5.4.1 Adekas´new liquid Yttrium precursor ............................... 103
5.4.2 Strem Chemicals’ offers new La-FMD ALD precursor for future leading-edge logic and memory products ... 104
5.4.3 RASIRC : Effective Silicon and Metal Nitride Deposition at Reduced Temperature using Brute Hydrazine ................................................. 105
5.4.4 Thermal ALD of Aluminum for Metal Gates/ Electrodes ................... 106
5.4.5 Cobalt, Copper, and Iron Amidinate? Liner/Interconnect .................... 107
5.4.6 Cobalt CVD Precursor - Cosine? .................................. 108
5.4.7 Ruthenium Precursors - Selective Deposition ......................... 109
5.5 Suppliers or parts/product lines that are at risk of discontinuance or capacity reduction 112
5.6 Materials Market Size & Forecast .................................112
5.6.1 Metal and High-κ ALD/CVD precursors........................... 113
5.6.2 Market Shares and Regional Shares .............................. 116

6 Sub-tier Material Supply Chain ................................ 121

6.1 Raw Material Pricing trends/Price points, if easily available* ..................121
6.1.1 By material segment (using targets for example, Ta, Ti, W, etc.) ........... 121
6.1.1.1 Tungsten ................................................... 121
6.1.1.2 Tantalum .................................................. 122
6.1.1.3 Titanium .................................................... 123
6.1.1.4 Aluminium ................................................. 123
6.1.1.5 Zirconium and Hafnium ......................................... 124
6.1.1.6 Cobalt ..................................................... 127
6.1.1.7 Ruthenium ................................................. 127
6.1.2 Pricing trends and/or forecast ................................. 128
6.1.3 TECHCET Analyst Assessment and outlook for raw materials supply-chain issues. 128

7 Supplier Profiles ........................................ 129

Appendix 1: Copper Interconnect History & Status ......................130
Appendix 2: Fundamentals of thin film deposition by CVD, ALD, and SOD, and ASD and ALE ... 132
7.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition - CVD ................................132
7.2 Atomic Layer Deposition - ALD .................................. 134
7.3 Spin-on Dielectrics (SOD) ..................................... 134
Appendix 3: Acronyms ........................................ 136

List of Figures

Figure 1 TECHCET Wafer Starts by Technology Node and Device Type ? 2/2019 modified to show the high growth nodes concerning ALD, CVD, and SOD. ........ 11
Figure 2 : Metal and High-κ Precursor Market Shares by Precursor Type Estimates .. 14
Figure 3 Dielectric Precursor Market Shares by Precursor Type Estimates for 2019 & 2024. ... 15
Figure 4 2018 Global Economy and the Electronics Supply Chain ............ 19
Figure 5 Worldwide Semiconductor Sales ........................... 20
Figure 6 Global Purchasing Managers Index .......................... 21
Figure 7 Global Electronics Production Annual Growth .................. 24
Figure 8 Global Electronics Production Annual Growth .................. 25
Figure 9 Automotive Electronic Content Growth ........................ 28
Figure 10 Automotive Semiconductor Market Growth ................... 29
Figure 11 2019 Semiconductor Revenue Growth Forecasts ................. 30
Figure 12 2019 Semiconductor Market Size by Device Segment .............. 31
Figure 13 Semiconductor Device Unit Growth ........................ 32
Figure 14 200 mm Fab Capacity Outlook to 2022 ...................... 36
Figure 15 TECHCET Wafer Starts by Technology Node and Device Type ? 2/2019 ... 38
Figure 16 China IC Production Share and Consumption Trends ............... 39
Figure 17 Metal precursor revenue 2014 to 2024 (Forecast) ................ 43
Figure 18 IC Technology Roadmap Evolutions and Revolutions. .............. 52
Figure 19 Process and materials changes required to shrinking logic and memory devices. ... 53
Figure 20 Double patterning by increases density so called LELE for “Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch. ... 54
Figure 21 Self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP). .................... 55
Figure 22 Hardmask and Relationship to Pattern Collapse ................ 56
Figure 23 Dimensional scaling under pressure ....................... 57
Figure 24 EPE is the difference between the intended and the printed features of an IC layout. Shrinking dimensions exacerbate EPE issues. .................... 58
Figure 25 The innovative copper metallization technique by IBM from 1997 produced a chip with six layers of copper circuitry with circuit line widths of 0.20 microns. ..... 61
Figure 26 Extending copper requires co-optimization of ALD barriers ............ 62
Figure 27 Introduction of Co CVD encapsulation and transition to Cobalt contacts and local interconnects. ... 63
Figure 28 Intel Interconnect stack. ............................. 64
Figure 29 10nm via structure filled with cobalt shows no seams. ............ 65
Figure 30 Apple A11 resp. A12 fabricated using TSMC 10 res. 7 nm showing the introduction of Co contacts (blue) with TiN barrier at 7 nm (Apple A12). .......... 66
Figure 31 Applied Materials PVD/ALD/CVD-deposition solution for Cobalt fill. ....... 67
Figure 32 Replacement of Thick TaN with Thin ALD MgSi ................ 69
Figure 33 The evolution of High-κ / Metal Gate Transistors, from planar 45 nm to the 14 nm node. .. 70
Figure 34 Comparison of CMOS Transistor used today. (A) Planar, (B) FD-SOI and (C) FinFET. ... 71
Figure 35 Possible uses for dielectrics in state of the art 10 nm FinFET Technology .... 72
Figure 36 Logic Process nodes compared. .......................... 73
Figure 37 Logic Technology Industry Roadmap (TechInsight, January 2018)....... 74
Figure 38 After the introduction at 22 nm by Intel a taller fin height and narrower fin width leads to more vertical profile in 14 nm and 10 nm. ................. 74
Figure 39 Leading-edge Logic Wafer Starts, historical and forecasted. ........... 75
Figure 40 Air Spacers Used Between Gates and Contacts. .................. 76
Figure 41 A Gate-all-around FET that could come into play at 5 or 3 nm........ 77
Figure 42 Imec CMOS Roadmap. ................................ 78
Figure 43 Imec has achieved the CMOS integration of vertically stacked gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire MOSFETs. ............................... 79
Figure 44 Three principal Cross-section simulation of (a) finFET, (b) nanowire, and (c) nanosheet. ... 80
Figure 45 TEM cross section of 5nm-node GAA-FETs by IBM, Samsung and GlobalFoundries. ... 81
Figure 46 Leti roadmap for introducing monolithic 3D Logic scaling at 5 nm...... 83
Figure 47 Stacking FinFETs on FinFETs. .......................... 84
Figure 48 DRAM nodes by the top 3 companies, Samsung, SK Hynix and Micron (Elpida, Nanya) compared with Winbond and the Chinese DRAM manufactures ......... 86
Figure 49 The implications of the transition to 3DNAND, less dielectrics for multiple patterning but more for the multilayer stack as well as etch hardmasks (Applied Materials)... 88
Figure 50 Transition from 2D to 3DNAND........................... 89
Figure 51 NAND Technology Roadmap. ............................ 90
Figure 52 Wafer forecast for XPoint memory. ........................ 91
Figure 53 Ferroelectric hafnium oxide by ALD can be integrated in 3D capacitors (FRAM) in BEOL as well as in a FEOL HKMG stack (FeFETs). ..................... 92
Figure 54 An overview of emerging memory technologies that has been announced by the major players. ... 93
Figure 55 Introduction of High-κ in high volume production. ............... 94
Figure 56 Adeka yttrium precursor Y-5000. ......................... 103
Figure 57 La-FMD is a promising metal-amidinate ALD precursors for lanthanum (La) based ALD thin-films which are potentially strong candidates for high-κ gate dielectric in the next generation of CMOS technology......................... 105
Figure 58 TiNx grown with Brute Hydrazine at 300°C gives comparable resistivity to TiNx grown with NH3 at 400°C. ................................ 106
Figure 59 Atomic Layer Deposition of Aluminum Metal Films Using a Thermally Stable Aluminum Hydride Reducing Agent. ............................. 107
Figure 60 Metal amidinate compounds to include cobalt, copper, and iron analogs. .. 108
Figure 61 Cobalt CVD precursor Cosine?. ........................ 109
Figure 62 Area selective ALD of Ru metal on metal. ................... 110
Figure 63 Ru-precursors introduced by TANAKA and their roadmap for Logic. .... 111
Figure 75 Metal and High-κ Precursor Market Shares by Precursor Type Estimates ... 114
Figure 76 ALD/CVD High-κ & Metal Precursor Market Revenue Estimates 2015 to 2024 (11% CAGR). ... 115
Figure 79 Metal and dielectric precursor market shares 2018-2019 .......... 117
Figure 80 2018 WW Market Shares Metal Precursor Suppliers Estimate s 2017/2018. 118
Figure 81 2018 Regional Market Share ? Metal Precursor Shipments. .......... 119
Figure 82 2018 WW Market Shares Dielectric Precursor Suppliers Estimate. ....... 120
Figure 83 2018 Regional Market Shares - Dielectric Precursor Shipments 2018-2019. 120
Figure 84 Tungsten Price Trends (red dots) and inflation-adjusted (blue triangles). .. 122
Figure 85 Tantalum Ore Prices. ................................ 123
Figure 86 Aluminum metal price. .............................. 124
Figure 87 Hafnium and Zirconium Mineral Processing & Extraction ........... 125
Figure 88 Hafnium supply estimates 2016. .......................... 126
Figure 89 Cobalt metal price.................................. 127
Figure 90 Ruthenium price. ................................ 128
Figure 91 : The copper damascene and dual damascene process for copper interconnects .......................................... 130
Figure 92 : The fundamental differences between continuous, pulsed and atomic layer processing. .......................................... 133
Figure 93: CVD vs. Spin on Deposition Processes. ...................... 135

List of Tables

Table 1 Global GDP and Semiconductor Revenues .................... 18
Table 2 IMF World Economic Outlook ............................. 22
Table 3 World Bank GDP Forecast ............................... 23
Table 4 Worldwide IT Spending Forecast (Billions of U.S. Dollars).............. 25
Table 5 Smartphone Vendor Shipments (Millions of Units) .................. 26
Table 6 VLSI Research Semiconductor Revenue by Segment ............... 30
Table 7 2019 Semiconductor Equipment Outlook ...................... 32
Table 8 Top IDM and Foundry Capex Spenders ........................ 33
Table 9 2019 Investment Plans for Selected Device Companies .............. 34
Table 10 World Tungsten Production & Reserves (metric tons). .............. 44
Table 11 World Niobium Production and Reserves (metric tons). ............ 46
Table 12 Tantalum Mine Production and Reserves (metric tons). ............. 46
Table 13 World’s Zirconium Ores and Concentrates (including Hafnium) Mine Production and Reserves (thousands of metric tons). .......................... 48
Table 14 Worldwide Cobalt Mine Production and Reserves (metric tons).......... 49
Table 15 World resources of PGM Mine Production & Reserves (Kilograms). ........ 50
Table 16 Rare Earths WW Mine Production and Reserves (metric tons). ........ 51
Table 17: OEM Tool Sets for Sub-5 nm Logic devices. .................. 82
Table 18 : Critical thermal budget steps summary in a planar FDSOI integration and 3D CoolCube process for top FET in 3DVLSI. ........................... 84
Table 19 Assessment of China need for advanced ALD/CVD precursors. ........ 96
Table 20 Overview of ALD OEMs supplying 200 mm tools. ................ 112
Table 21 TECHCET Market Segmentation Categories. .................... 112

 

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プレスリリース

Global Market Remains Strong for ALD & CVD Precursors in IC Fabs

San Diego, CA, October 15, 2019: TECHCET—the advisory services firm providing electronic materials information—announced that the global market for atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) precursors is showing strong growth despite semiconductor fabrication market challenges in 2019. CVD growth is mainly in plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) and metal-organic CVD (MOCVD) for silicon ICs and for newer devices including micro-displays, RF for 5G, and photonics. The combined ALD and CVD metal precursor market is estimated to be approximately US$582M in 2019 growing 6.3% from the prior year and forecasted to grow above US$930M by 2025, as detailed in the latest Critical Materials Report™ (CMR) on ALD / High-K Metal Precursors (see Figure).

ALD / High K Metal Precursors - Techcet

More on Precursors:

"Today, the top three suppliers ADEKA, Air Liquide, and Versum dominate the market by controlling ~75% of the segments," explained Dr. Jonas Sundqvist, TECHCET senior technology analyst and author of the report. "However, due to the recent development that Merck will acquire Versum, there is a good chance that by doing so it will become the number one supplier for all type of metal, High-κ, and dielectric precursors."The CVD, ALD, and SOD market includes from both specialty gases (e.g. WF6) and liquid precursors, as well as a considerable segment of solid precursors (e.g. HfCl4, PDMAT). In addition, there are smaller segments for precursors that still do not reach annual sales of >US$5 million such as ruthenium and rare earth elements (REE).

This report covers the following suppliers: ADEKA, Air Liquide, Air Products, AZmax Co., BASF, DNF Co., Entegris, Epivalence, FujiFilm, Gelest, Hansol Chemical, H.C. Starck, Kojundo, Linde (Praxair), Mecaro, Merck EMD, Nanmat, Norquay, Pegasus Chemicals, Soulbrain, Strem, Tanaka Kikinzoku Group, Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Tri Chemical Laboratories, Umicore, UP Chemical (Yoke), and Versum.

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