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プリンテッドセンサとフレキシブルセンサ  2020-2030年:技術、企業、予測:有機とハイブリッド光検出機構、バイオセンサ、ITO交換素材、ウェアラブル電極、ピエゾ抵抗、圧電、温度、タッチ、ガス、湿度、歪みセンサ

Printed and Flexible Sensors 2020-2030: Technologies, Players, Forecasts

Including organic and hybrid photodetectors, biosensors, ITO replacement materials, wearable electrodes, and piezoresistive, piezoelectric, temperature, touch, gas, humidity and strain sensors.

 

出版社 出版年月電子版価格 ページ数
IDTechEx
アイディーテックエックス
2020年6月GBP4,650
電子ファイル(1-5ユーザライセンス)
680

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サマリー

この調査レポートは、プリンテッドセンサとフレキシブルセンサをタイプ、技術、アプリケーションごとに調査し、今後10年間の収益予測を行っています。

調査対象センサは下記の通りです。

  • プリンテッドセンサ
    • 広範囲イメージセンサ
    • ハイブリッド量子ドットセンサ、有機CMOSイメージセンサー
    • SWIR画像向けハイブリッドセンサ
    • ピエゾ抵抗センサ
    • 圧電センサ
    • 温度センサ
    • 容量性歪みセンサ
    • 容量性タッチセンサ向けITO代替素材
    • 光検出器容量センサ
    • ガスセンサと湿度センサ
    • バイオセンサ
    • スキンパッチとeテキスタイル向けプリンテッドエレクトロニクス

Description

This IDTechEx Research report provides an extensive overview of the diverse underlying technologies and applications of printed and flexible sensors. This includes organic and hybrid photodetectors, piezoresistive and piezoelectric pressure sensors, stretchable strain sensors, temperature sensors, printed electrodes for skin patches, biosensors, ITO alternatives for capacitive touch sensors, and others. By profiling over 50 companies we map the commercial adoption prospects and challenges for each technology and develop granular market forecasts that span all printed sensor types, technologies, and applications. Our 10-year market forecasts cover 30 applications/technologies and are provided in revenue and printed area.
 
IDTechEx has been researching the emerging printed electronics market for well over a decade. We launched our first printed and flexible sensor report in 2012. Since then we have stayed very close to the technical and market developments, interviewing and visiting the key players worldwide, organising the largest global tradeshows and conferences, delivering numerous consulting projects, and running classes and workshops on the topic. The depth and breadth of our insight is truly unrivalled.
 
Printed and flexible sensors constitute the largest printed electronics market. Indeed, we forecast that the market for fully printed sensors will reach $4.5 billion by 2030. This takes place despite the sustained displacement of its largest market - printed glucose test strips - with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) approaches. The market growth is therefore enabled by the rise of many new applications and technologies.
 
This printed sensor market is highly complex and fragmented. Some sensors consist of a very simple structure with only a few layers, whilst others are much more complex and require the deposition of multiple layers and sophisticated, innovative materials. Some sensors are sheet-to-sheet screen printed whereas others are made using continuous roll-to-roll printing. The majority are on low-cost flexible large-area substrates, but some are to be found atop CMOS devices or various textile substrates.
 
This report covers the entire printed and flexible sensor landscape. More specifically, it covers:
  • Large area image sensors
  • Hybrid QD/Organic-on-CMOS image sensors
  • Hybrid sensors for SWIR imaging
  • Piezoresistive sensors
  • Piezoelectric sensors
  • Temperature sensors
  • Capacitive strain sensors
  • ITO alternatives for capacitive touch sensors
  • Gas and humidity sensors
  • Biosensors
  • Printed electrodes for skin patches and e-textiles
 
We also cover the integration of printed sensors within the emerging technology of flexible hybrid electronics, which included both printed and placed (non-printed) components.
 
 
Growth in emerging applications
Printed sensors span a diverse range of technologies and applications, ranging from image sensors to wearable electrodes. Each sensor category seeks to offer a distinct value proposition over the incumbent technology, with a specific motivation for using printing as a manufacturing methodology. Furthermore, each has its different technological and commercial challenges on route to widespread adoption.
 
Hybrid image sensors
Hybrid image sensors are an especially promising category. They are comprised of a thin film (a few 100 nm) of either an organic semiconductor or quantum dots printed over a silicon readout circuit. They offer three distinct value propositions over the incumbent silicon CMOS detectors: a tuneable bandgap to enable NIR and SWIR imaging at much longer wavelengths, voltage-dependent sensitivity that enables spatially-variable neutral density filter, and more rapid charge collection that facilitates a global rather than rolling shutter.
 
Critically, hybrid image sensors can be manufactured using repurposed CMOS lines, substantially reducing capital requirements and facilitating more rapid adoption. The OPD-on-CMOS technology is set to be launched imminently in broadcast cameras, while the QD-on-CMOS technology is already commercially available and will transition to higher-power out-door applications as the thermal and light flux stability of the material system evolves over time. Therefore, the technology can migrate from indoor low-light inspection to outdoor applications such as SWIR imaging for autonomous vehicles.
 
This disruptive hybrid approach meets genuine market needs, demonstrating that integrating printable, functional materials with standard technology and manufacturing methods can enable substantial performance improvements while lowering adoption barriers. To learn more about the current and future status of all technology options and business landscape, and about granular application-segmented applications in this exciting and rapidly developing sector, please consult the report.
 
Large area image sensors
Large area image sensors based on printed organic photodiodes (OPDs) are an innovative technology, representing a complete change from the conventional CMOS-based image detection and going beyond what other large-area image sensors technologies can offer. The technology has two related value propositions: it is flexible and lightweight, unlike large area a-Si image detectors, and in principle it can be printed rapidly at low cost using continuous manufacturing methods.
 
However, today there are very few manufacturers, and these are mainly targeting biometric sensing as a relatively high value application, thus enabling them to avoid competing with CMOS. In one proposed application, large area under-the-screen image sensors enable 4 fingerprints to be imaged simultaneously, in contrast to the incumbent technology that either images a single finger or requires a complex optical system to image a large area.
 
While technically impressive, large area image sensing appears to be largely driven by pushing the technology rather than maker need. It is questionable whether this capability represents a sufficient advance over incumbent methods to overcome the entry barrier to adoption, especially as fingerprint recognition must compete with incumbent methods.
 
Our report outlines current and future status of the technology, the application roadmap, and the associated market for each application.
 
Piezoresistive sensors
Printed piezoresistive force sensors are a longstanding application, widely used today in car occupancy sensors, musical instruments, industrial equipment, and some medical devices. While these markets are somewhat commoditized, the sector is innovating to access new, differentiated, higher value applications.
 
One example is 3D touch panels that can measure applied force as a function position, thus enabling the recognition of complex HMI gestures than the incumbent capacitive touch panels. Suppliers are continuing to target phones, computer gaming and automotive interiors. Other innovations include hybrid capacitive/piezoresistive sensor arrays that detect proximity but require a firm push to actuate, piezoresistive handles as a safety device for power tools, and manufacturing via roll-to-roll processing.
 
The challenge for differentiating piezoresistive sensors is that many applications do not require sophisticated functionality such as 3D touch or proximity sensing. Furthermore, the revenue streams can widely fluctuate with the various product cycles, requiring very active development of the application pipeline. The relatively low technology complexity can also mean that barriers to entry and the value capture are low. This is convincing some to go higher up in the value chain, offering fully integrated solutions.
 
Detailed discussion of the current and future status of the technology, the business landscape, and granular application-segmented applications is given in our report
 
Piezoelectric sensors
Piezoelectric sensors generate a voltage in response to an applied force, rather than changing their resistance. While, like piezoresistive sensors, they can be used for force sensing, they are more expensive to manufacture and less straightforward to integrate. As such, manufacturers are primarily targeting applications that utilize their unique capabilities, specifically their sensitivity to high frequency vibrations.
 
In this report we cover two printable piezoelectric materials: polymers and inorganic-containing composites. The former have seen greater commercial uptake, but both are still under development. The commercial difficulty for printed piezoelectric sensors is that their capabilities lie midway between two simple established technologies: Affordable piezoresistive pressure sensors, and sensitive, rigid ceramic piezoelectric sensors. As such, piezoelectric sensing applications are rather niche, unless the technological readiness level of energy harvesting dramatically increases to enable self-powered sensors.
 
A better value proposition, where these materials have unique capability, is for flexible high frequency actuators (i.e. wearable ultrasound generators for medical therapeutics). To learn more about the technologies, players, and market positioning of piezoelectric sensors, please see the report.
 
 
ITO remains the incumbent transparent conductive material used in touch screen, despite nearly two-decades of attempts to unseat it. This displacement was partly hampered by technical issues such as stability or haze and partly by commercial reasons. In particular, the dominant strategy of market share protection pursued by ITO suppliers and supported by the previous fall in indium prices drove a tough consolidation in the market.
 
Nonetheless, these alternatives are finally finding market in flexible or 3D shaped objects, in large-area multi-touch capacitive touch screens, and even nowadays sometimes in lower cost touch screens. Our report includes a detailed technical and commercial benchmarking of the different technology options, an application roadmap, and market forecasts segmented by Ag nanowires, carbon nanotubes, ITO film and various forms of hybrid or printed metal mesh.
 
Capacitive strain sensors
Various partially or fully printed stretchable strain sensors have been developed and commercialized over the years. Basic technology demonstration has proved relatively easy, but not every supplier has succeeded in transitioning to large-volume capability at lower costs.
 
The main challenge has been that flexible strain sensors are generally not replacing an existing product, meaning that completely new markets need to be developed. To address this challenge and to capture more value, many suppliers offer vertically integrated 'solutions'.
 
After years of development opportunities in industrial displacement sensing, in wearable electronics, and in continuous patient monitoring are now emerging. To learn more about the players, the technologies, the application roadmap, and segmented market forecasts please see the report.
 
Temperature sensors
Printing can also be used to create temperature sensors, using either a composite ink with silicon nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. Given that temperature measurement requires good thermal contact, sensors based on conformal substrates might seem to offer a clear value proposition.
 
Their main challenge is the low cost, light weight, and ubiquity of very mature solutions such as thermistors and resistive temperature detectors. These can be deployed with a flexible thermal conductor, thus somewhat nullifying the value proposition of printed temperature sensors. As such, they are best suited to applications that require spatial resolution using conformal array, such as monitoring skin complaints. Monitoring the temperature of batteries in electric vehicles is another possible application, but one that has yet to be widely adopted and could arguably be achieved with multiple thermistors.
 
Gas and humidity sensors
Gas and humidity sensors can also be printed, although at present most are made from ceramics rather than organic material. Some of these ceramics are printed as a 'thick film' with very high curing temperatures, rendering them incompatible with flexible substrates. Emerging approaches are based around functionalized carbon nanotubes and other organic semiconductors. Multiple sensors with slightly different properties can be combined to form an 'electronic nose', with their composite output exhibiting a different 'fingerprint' for each analyte.
 
Gas sensors are already used in many industrial contexts and are likely to be increasingly adopted as concern about air pollution grows. Unlike some sectors, there is substantial scope for differentiation by sensitivity and analyte, leading to a fragmented market. Another promising long-term application in which printed gas sensors offer unique capability is directly printing onto food packaging to measure food degradation. However, this will likely require the development of flexible hybrid electronics to make such capability cost-effective via continuous manufacturing, along with the development of enabling technologies such as flexible ICs. Flexible hybrid electronics are discussed in more detail in the IDTechEx report: Flexible hybrid electronics 2020-2030: Applications, challenges, innovations, forecasts.
 
Biosensors
The largest category of printed sensors by revenue and volume is printed biosensors, dominated by glucose test strips. The annual demand is in the billions. However, use is gradually declining due to the adoption of convenient continuous glucose monitoring, a trend that will continue to grow. In parallel, there have been significant price pressures and commoditization as regulators have sought to supress the test prices and in doing so eroded the margins. Despite all this, this remains the largest volume and revenue business in the printed and flexible sensor landscape. Importantly, printed biosensors are not constrained to glucose sensing and an array of other sensors are emerging.
 
Wearable electrodes
Today, most medial electrodes comprise a metal snap fastening with an electrolytic gel, but these can only be used for short periods. For continuous monitoring, printed electrodes are gradually being adopted into skin patches, since they last longer, can be integrated into a product together with conductive interconnects (also printed) and are flexible. Wearable electrodes are also well suited to fitness context and have been integrated into e-textiles to monitor heart rate in a comfortable way. Both medical and fitness applications of printed wearable electrodes are likely to increase as the software for continuous monitoring develops thus creating greater demand, although the durability in e-textiles remains a concern for consumers. Skin patches and e-textiles are discussed more comprehensively in the IDTechEx reports: Electronic skin patches: 2020-2030, and E-textiles and Smart Clothing 2020-2030: Technologies, Markets and Players.
 
Our report discusses each of these printed sensor categories in considerable detail, evaluating the different technologies and the challenges to adoption. We also develop 10-year market forecasts for each technology and application sector, delineated by both revenue and printed sensor area.

 



目次

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1. An introduction to printed and flexible sensors
1.2. Opportunities for SWIR image sensors
1.3. Growth areas for printed piezoresistive sensors
1.4. Printed piezoresistive sensor application assessment (I)
1.5. Printed piezoresistive sensor application assessment (II)
1.6. Solution processed or hybrid ITO alternatives for capacitive touch
1.7. Opportunities for printed temperature sensors
1.8. Opportunities for printed gas/humidity sensors
1.9. Wearable technology: An opportunity for capacitive strain sensors.
1.10. Glucose test strips: A large but declining market
1.11. Printed wearable electrode sensors: Opportunities in healthcare and fitness monitoring.
1.12. 10-year forecast for printed sensor revenue by sensor type (Sensor categories: Image, pressure, gas & humidity, temperature, strain, wearable, glucose test strips)
1.13. 10-year printed sensor forecast by revenue (Sensor categories: Image, pressure, gas & humidity, temperature, strain, wearable)
1.14. 10-year printed sensor forecast by revenue: All categories
1.15. 10-year printed sensor forecast by unit volume (in m2): All categories
1.16. 10-year printed sensor forecast by unit volume (in m2): All categories (excluding biosensors)
1.17. Key takeaways
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. What is a sensor?
2.2. Sensor value chain example: Digital camera
2.3. What defines a 'printed' sensor?
2.4. Printed sensor manufacturing
2.5. Motivation for printed electronics: Flexibility
2.6. Motivation for printed electronics: Ease of manufacturing
2.7. A brief overview of screen, slot-die, gravure and flexographic printing
2.8. A brief overview of digital printing methods
2.9. Towards roll to roll (R2R) printing
2.10. Printed sensor categories
2.11. What proportion is printed?
2.12. Opportunities for printed sensors: Facilitating computational data analysis
2.13. Opportunities for printed sensors: Healthcare
2.14. Opportunities for printed sensors: Human machine interfaces (HMI)
3. PHOTODETECTORS AND IMAGE SENSORS
3.1. Organic photodetectors for large area image sensors
3.1.1. Organic photodetectors (OPDs)
3.1.2. OPDs: Advantages and disadvantages
3.1.3. Reducing OPD dark current
3.1.4. Manipulating the detection wavelength
3.1.5. Extending OPDs to the NIR region: Use of cavities
3.1.6. Manufacturing challenges for cavity OPDs
3.1.7. What can you do with organic photodetectors?
3.1.8. 'Fingerprint on display' with OPDs
3.1.9. Challenges for printed OPDs
3.1.10. First OPD production line
3.1.11. Applications based on TFT active matrix
3.1.12. Manipulating OPD properties by changing molecular structure.
3.1.13. OPDs for biometric security
3.1.14. Spray-coated organic photodiodes for medical imaging.
3.1.15. Flexible image sensors based on amorphous Si
3.1.16. Materials for OPDs
3.1.17. Challenges for large area OPD adoption
3.1.18. Technical requirements/manufacturing approaches for OPD applications: Biometric recognition, smart shelving, x-ray sensing and SWIR imaging
3.1.19. SWOT analysis of large area OPD image sensors
3.1.20. Organic photodetector forecast
3.2. Motivation for infra-red sensing
3.2.1. Applications for NIR/SWIR imaging
3.2.2. SWIR for autonomous mobility
3.2.3. Other SWIR benefits: Better hazard detection
3.2.4. Towards broadband hyperspectral imaging
3.2.5. SWIR sensitivity of PbS QDs, Si, polymers, InGaAs, HgCdTe, etc...
3.2.6. NIR sensing: limitation of Si CMOS
3.2.7. Existing long wavelength detection: InGaAs
3.2.8. InGaAs sensor design: Solder bumps limit resolution
3.2.9. Innovative silicon based SWIR sensors (Trieye) (I)
3.2.10. Innovative silicon based SWIR sensors (Trieye) (II)
3.2.11. OmniVision: making silicon CMOS sensitive to NIR (II)
3.2.12. SWIR: Incumbent and emerging technology options
3.3. OPD on CMOS hybrid image sensors
3.3.1. OPD on CMOS hybrid image sensors
3.3.2. Hybrid organic/CMOS sensor for broadcast cameras
3.3.3. Comparing hybrid organic/CMOS sensor with backside illumination CMOS sensor
3.3.4. Hybrid organic/CMOS sensor (III)
3.3.5. Progress in CMOS global shutter using silicon technology only
3.3.6. Fraunhofer FEP: SWIR OPD-on-CMOS sensors (I)
3.3.7. Fraunhofer FEP: SWIR OPD-on-CMOS sensors (II)
3.3.8. SWOT analysis of OPD-on-CMOS image sensors
3.4. Quantum dot on CMOS hybrid image sensors
3.4.1. Quantum dots as optical sensor materials
3.4.2. Lead sulphide as quantum dots
3.4.3. Quantum dots: Choice of the material system
3.4.4. Applications and challenges for quantum dots in image sensors
3.4.5. QD layer advantage in image sensor (I): Increasing sensor sensitivity and gain
3.4.6. QD-Si hybrid image sensors(II): Reducing thickness
3.4.7. Detectivity benchmarking (I)
3.4.8. Detectivity benchmarking (II)
3.4.9. QD-Si hybrid image sensors (III): Enabling high resolution global shutter
3.4.10. QD-Si hybrid image sensors(IV): Low power and high sensitivity to structured light detection for machine vision?
3.4.11. Advantage of solution processing: ease of integration with ROIC CMOS?
3.4.12. How is the QD layer applied?
3.4.13. QD optical layer: Approaches to increase conductivity of QD films
3.4.14. Quantum dots: Covering the range from visible to near infrared
3.4.15. Hybrid quantum dots for SWIR imaging (I)
3.4.16. SWIR Vision Sensors: first QD-Si cameras and/or an alternative to InVisage (now Apple)?
3.4.17. SWIR Vision Sensors: first QD-Si cameras and/or an alternative to InVisage (now Apple)?
3.4.18. SWIR Vision Sensors: First commercial QD-CMOS cameras
3.4.19. Emberion: QD-graphene SWIR sensor
3.4.20. Emberion: QD-Graphene-Si broad range SWIR sensor
3.4.21. QD-on-CMOS from Hanyang University (South Korea)
3.4.22. Challenges for QD-Si technology for SWIR imaging.
3.4.23. Advantage of solution processing: Ease of integration with CMOS ROICs?
3.4.24. Quantum dot films: Processing challenges
3.4.25. How is the QD layer applied?
3.4.26. PdS QDs: Optical sensor with high responsibility and wide spectrum
3.4.27. Results and status for QD-Si sensors
3.4.28. Nanoco loses the Apple project
3.4.29. QD-on-CMOS integration examples (IMEC)
3.4.30. QD-on-CMOS integration examples (RTI International)
3.4.31. QD-on-CMOS integration examples (ICFO)
3.4.32. QD-on-CMOS integration examples (ICFO continued)
3.4.33. Overview of OPD-on-CMOS and QD-on-CMOS sensors
3.4.34. Prospects for QD/OPD-on-CMOS detectors
3.4.35. QD-on-CMOS sensors ongoing technical challenges
3.4.36. SWOT analysis of QD-on-CMOS image sensors
3.5. Summary: Printed image sensors
3.5.1. Comparison of image sensors technologies
3.5.2. Printed photodetector application assessment
3.5.3. Printed image sensor supplier overview
3.5.4. Technology readiness level snapshot of printed image sensors
3.5.5. Printed image sensor adoption roadmap
3.5.6. Printed image sensor application status summary
3.5.7. Printed image sensors forecast methodology
3.5.8. 10-year organic photodetector forecast by sales volume (in m2) and revenue
3.5.9. 10-year printed/hybrid image sensors forecast by sales volume (in m2) and revenue
3.6. Company profiles: Printed image sensors
3.6.1. Company profiles: Printed image sensors
4. PRINTED PIEZORESISTIVE SENSORS
4.1. Printed piezoresistive sensor technology
4.1.1. What is piezoresistance?
4.1.2. Percolation dependent resistance
4.1.3. Quantum tunnelling composite
4.1.4. Printed piezoresistive sensors: Anatomy
4.1.5. Pressure sensing architectures
4.1.6. Thru mode sensors
4.1.7. Shunt mode sensors
4.1.8. Force vs resistance characteristics
4.1.9. Manipulating the force-resistance curve
4.1.10. Importance of actuator area
4.1.11. FSR inks
4.1.12. Complete material portfolio approach is common
4.1.13. Composition dependence
4.1.14. Shunt-mode FSR sensors by the roll
4.1.15. Example FSR circuits
4.1.16. Effect of circuit design on sensor output
4.1.17. 3D multi-touch pressure sensors
4.1.18. Matrix pressure sensor architecture
4.1.19. Printed foldable force sensing solution
4.1.20. Hybrid FSR/capacitive sensors (Tangio)
4.1.21. Hybrid FSR/capacitive sensors
4.1.22. Curved sensors with consistent zero (Tacterion)
4.1.23. Technological development of piezoresistive sensors.
4.2. Applications of printed piezoresistive sensors
4.2.1. Applications of piezoresistive sensors
4.2.2. Medical applications of printed FSR (Tekscan)
4.2.3. Medical applications of printed FSRs (Tekscan)
4.2.4. Teeth topography from Innovation Lab
4.2.5. Large-area pressure sensors
4.2.6. Force sensor examples: Sensing Tex
4.2.7. Force sensor examples: Vista Medical
4.2.8. Automotive occupancy and seat belt alarm sensors
4.2.9. Consumer electronic applications of printed FSR
4.2.10. Textile-based applications of printed FSR
4.2.11. SOFTswitch: Force sensor on fabric
4.2.12. Pressure sensitive fabric (Vista Medical)
4.2.13. Piezoresistive sensors in smartphones
4.2.14. A portable MIDI controller - The Morph (Sensel)
4.2.15. Smart carpet to enforce social distancing (due to coronavirus)
4.2.16. Printed piezoresistive sensor application assessment (I)
4.2.17. Printed piezoresistive sensor application assessment (II)
4.3. Summary: Printed piezoresistive sensors
4.3.1. Business models for printed piezoresistive sensors
4.3.2. R2R vs S2S manufacturing
4.3.3. Readiness level snapshot of printed piezoresistive sensor technologies
4.3.4. Force sensitive resistor sensor supplier overview
4.3.5. Printed piezoresistive sensor adoption roadmap
4.3.6. SWOT analysis of piezoresistive sensors
4.3.7. 10-year printed piezoresistive sensor forecast by sales volume (in m2) and revenue (Categories: industrial, medical, consumer, automotive)
4.3.8. Summary: Printed piezoresistive sensor applications
4.4. Company profiles: Piezoresistive sensors
4.4.1. Company profiles: Piezoresistive sensors
5. PRINTED PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
5.1.1. Piezoelectricity: An introduction
5.1.2. Piezoelectric polymers
5.1.3. PVDF-based polymer options for sensing and haptic actuators
5.1.4. Low temperature piezoelectric inks (I) (Meggitt)
5.1.5. Piezoelectric polymers
5.1.6. Printed piezoelectric sensor
5.1.7. Printed piezoelectric sensors: prototypes
5.1.8. Pyzoflex
5.1.9. Piezoelectric actuators in loudspeaker/microphones
5.1.10. PiezoPaint (Meggit)
5.1.11. Haptic actuators
5.1.12. Example application: Haptic gloves
5.1.13. Combining energy harvesting and sensing
5.2. Summary: Printed piezoelectric sensors
5.2.1. SWOT analysis of piezoelectric sensors
5.2.2. Piezoelectric sensor supplier overview
 

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