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V2X(車車間通信・路車間通信)のエコシステム 2019-2030年:ビジネスチャンス、課題、戦略、市場予測

The V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

 

出版社 出版年月価格 ページ数図表数
SNS Telecom & IT
SNSテレコム&IT
2019年3月お問い合わせください 871 161

サマリー

英国とドバイに拠点をおく調査会社シグナルズアンドシステムズテレコム/SNSリサーチ (Signals and Systems Telecom/SNS Research)の調査レポート「V2X(車車間通信・路車間通信)のエコシステム 2019-2030年:ビジネスチャンス、課題、戦略、市場予測」は、V2Xの市場促進要因、課題、対応技術、用途シナリオ、利用ケース、ビジネスモデル、主要動向、標準化、帯域幅と割当、法規制の状況、V2X導入のケーススタディ、ビジネスチャンス、今後のロードマップ、バリューチェーン、関連企業の概要と戦略などのV2Xエコシステムに関する詳細な分析を提供している。2019-2030年の市場規模を4つのサブ市場毎、2つの無線インターフェース技術毎、10の用途カテゴリー毎、5つの地域毎に予測している。予測等の数値データをエクセルデータシートで提供している。
  • Release Date: March 2019
  • Number of Pages: 871
  • Number of Tables and Figures: 161

Synopsis

Commonly referred to as V2X, vehicle-to-everything communications technology allows vehicles to directly communicate with each other, roadside infrastructure, and other road users to deliver an array of benefits in the form of road safety, traffic efficiency, smart mobility, environmental sustainability, and driver convenience. In addition, V2X is also helping pave the way for fully autonomous driving through its unique non line-of-sight sensing capability which allows vehicles to detect potential hazards, traffic, and road conditions from longer distances and sooner than other in-vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar, and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging).
 
Although legacy V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) technologies are currently in operational use worldwide for ETC (Electronic Toll Collection) and relatively simple V2I applications, advanced V2X systems – capable of supporting V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle), V2I and other forms of V2X communications – are beginning to gain broad commercial acceptance with two competing technologies vying for the attention of automakers and regulators:  the commercially mature IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) standard, and the relatively new 3GPP-defined C-V2X (Cellular V2X) technology which has a forward evolutionary path towards 5G.
 
With an initial focus on road safety and traffic efficiency applications, Toyota and GM (General Motors) have already equipped some of their vehicle models with IEEE 802.11p-based V2X technology in Japan and North America.  Among other commercial commitments, Volkswagen will begin deploying IEEE 802.11p on volume models in Europe starting from 2019, while Geely and Ford plan to integrate C-V2X in their new vehicles by 2021 and 2022 respectively. It is also worth nothing that a number of luxury automakers – including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen's subsidiary Audi, and Volvo Cars – already deliver certain V2X-type applications through wide-area cellular connectivity and supporting infrastructure such as appropriately equipped roadwork trailers.
 
Despite the ongoing 802.11p/DSRC versus C-V2X debate, regulatory uncertainty and other challenges, global spending on V2X communications technology is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 170% between 2019 and 2022. SNS Telecom & IT predicts that by the end of 2022,  V2X will account for a market worth $1.2 Billion, with an installed base of nearly 6 Million V2X-equipped vehicles worldwide. 
 
The “V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the V2X ecosystem including market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, application scenarios, use cases, business models, key trends, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, V2X deployment case studies, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents market size forecasts from 2019 till 2030. The forecasts cover four submarkets, two air interface technologies,  10 application categories and five regions.
 
The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.

Pricing: The report is available for the following price:
  • Single User License: USD 2,500
  • Company Wide License: USD 3,500
Key Findings: The report has the following key findings:
  • Despite the ongoing 802.11p/DSRC versus C-V2X debate, regulatory uncertainty and other challenges, global spending on V2X communications technology is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 170% between 2019 and 2022. SNS Telecom & IT predicts that by the end of 2022, V2X will account for a market worth $1.2 Billion, with an installed base of nearly 6 Million V2X-equipped vehicles worldwide.
  • While Toyota and other DSRC proponents are pushing ahead with their plans to roll out IEEE 802.11p in North America, Europe and Japan,  pre-commercial C-V2X deployments have recently gained considerable momentum, spearheaded by cellular industry giants such as Qualcomm and Huawei – with support from automakers including Ford, BMW, Daimler, Groupe PSA, SAIC, Geely, Volkswagen's luxury brand Audi, and JLR (Jaguar Land Rover).
  • Regional markets are also visibly divided with the Chinese Government backing C-V2X, Europe leaning towards IEEE 802.11p through its recently published delegated act on C-ITS (Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems), and heated debates ensuing in the United States as a result of the 5GAA's waiver request to allow C-V2X deployments in the 5.9 GHz band.
  • As a result, a number of automotive OEMs are beginning to adopt a flexible approach by choosing to deploy different technologies in different regions as they commit to V2X. For example, although GM has equipped its Cadillac CTS sedan vehicles with IEEE 802.11p in North America, the automaker is actively working with business partners to prepare for C-V2X deployment in China.
  • Besides becoming a standard safety feature on an increasing number of vehicles, V2X communications technology – through its unique non line-of-sight sensing capability – will play a critical role in ensuring the safe and efficient operation of autonomous driving systems, particularly with the commercialization of next-generation V2X standards, specifically 5G-V2X and IEEE 802.11bd.
  • The globally harmonized 5.9 GHz band continues to remain the preferred spectrum for V2X communications technology, with the exception of Japan – where the national regulator has allocated a single 9 MHz channel in the frequency range 755.5 – 764.5 MHz for safety-related applications based on V2V and V2I communications.
  • Early discussions are ongoing for the potential use of new bands, most notably in the 3.4 – 3.8 GHz and 5.9 – 7.2 GHz frequency ranges, as well as millimeter wave spectrum for LOS (Line-of-Sight) and high data rate V2X applications. Recent field trials using 39 GHz spectrum in the United States have demonstrated that millimeter propagations for V2V communications can work well in the distance range of 100 meters, without advanced beamforming techniques.
 
Topics Covered: The report covers the following topics:
  • V2X ecosystem
  • Market drivers and barriers
  • V2V, V2I, V2P/V2D, V2N and other types of V2X communications
  • V2X architecture and key elements
  • V2X transmission modes, message sets and service capabilities
  • IEEE 802.11p, C-V2X and other enabling technologies for V2X communications
  • Complementary technologies including ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems), precision positioning, edge & cloud computing, network slicing, artificial intelligence, machine learning, Big Data and advanced analytics
  • Key trends including the adoption of V2X as an integral part of automakers' vehicle development roadmaps; commercial readiness of V2X systems capable of supporting both  IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X; launch of large scale, city-wide V2X deployments; availability of nationally and transnationally scalable V2X SCMS (Security Credential Management System) service offerings; emergence of motorcycle-specific V2X safety applications; use of V2V communications to support truck platooning systems; and delivery of certain V2X-type applications through  wide-area cellular connectivity
  • Review of more than 160 V2X applications – ranging from safety-related warnings and traffic light advisories to "see-through" visibility and fully autonomous driving
  • Business models for monetizing V2X applications
  • Examination of IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X engagements worldwide, including case studies of 22 live V2X deployments
  • Spectrum availability and allocation for V2X across the global, regional and national regulatory domains
  • Standardization, regulatory and collaborative initiatives
  • Future roadmap and value chain
  • Profiles and strategies of over 330 leading ecosystem players including automotive OEMS and V2X technology & solution providers
  • Exclusive interview transcripts from eight companies across the V2X value chain: Cohda Wireless, Foresight Autonomous Holdings, Kapsch TrafficCom, Nokia, NXP Semiconductors, OnBoard Security, Qualcomm, and Savari
  • Strategic recommendations for automotive OEMS, V2X technology & solution providers, mobile operators, cellular industry specialists and road operators
  • Market analysis and forecasts from 2019 till 2030
 
Forecast Segmentation: Market forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:
  • Submarkets
    • V2X Terminal Equipment
      • OBUs (On-Board Units)
      • RSUs (Roadside Units)
    • V2X Applications
    • V2X Backend Network Elements
    • V2X Security
  • Air Interface Technologies
    • C-V2X (Cellular V2X)
      • LTE-V2X
      • 5G NR (New Radio)-V2X
    • IEEE 802.11p
      • IEEE 802.11p-2010
      • IEEE 802.11bd/NGV (Next-Generation V2X)
  • Application Categories
    • Road Safety
    • Traffic Management & Optimization
    • Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information
    • Transit & Public Transport
    • Commercial Vehicle Operations
    • Emergency Services & Public Safety
    • Environmental Sustainability
    • Road Weather Management
    • Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications
    • Value-Added Services
  • Regional Markets
    • North America
    • Asia Pacific
    • Europe
    • Middle East & Africa
    • Latin & Central America
 
Key Questions Answered: The report provides answers to the following key questions:
  • How big is the V2X opportunity?
  • What trends, drivers and barriers are influencing its growth?
  • How is the ecosystem evolving by segment and region?
  • What will the market size be in 2022, and at what rate will it grow?
  • Which regions and countries will see the highest percentage of growth?
  • What is the status of V2X adoption worldwide, and what is the current installed base of V2X-equipped vehicles?
  • What are the key application scenarios and use cases of V2X?
  • How does V2X augment ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) to improve active safety, traffic efficiency and situational awareness?
  • Can V2X improve road safety for pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and other vulnerable road users?
  • What are the practical, quantifiable benefits of V2X – based on early commercial rollouts and large-scale pilot deployments? 
  • What are the technical and performance characteristics of IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X?
  • Do VLC (Visible Light Communications)/Li-Fi and other short-range wireless technologies pose a threat to IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X?
  • Which V2X applications will 5G-V2X and IEEE 802.11bd systems support in the future?
  • How will V2X enable the safe and efficient operation of autonomous vehicles?
  • What opportunities exist for mobile operators and cellular industry specialists in the V2X ecosystem?
  • Who are the key ecosystem players, and what are their strategies?
  • What strategies should automotive OEMs, V2X technology & solution providers, and other stakeholders adopt to remain competitive?
 
List of Companies Mentioned: The following companies and organizations have been reviewed, discussed or mentioned in the report:
 
01LightCom
3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
5GAA (5G Automotive Association)
5G-Connected Mobility Consortium
7Layers
A1 Telekom Austria Group
AASA
AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)
Abu Dhabi Department of Transport
ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers' Association)
ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium)
Airbiquity
Airgain
Alibaba Group
Allgon
Alphabet
Alps Alpine (Alps Electric/Alpine Electronics)
Altran
Amphenol Corporation
Amsterdam Group
Anritsu Corporation
Apple
Applied Information
Aptiv (Delphi Automotive)
ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
Aricent
ARM Holdings
Arteris IP
ASECAP (European Association of Operators of Toll Road Infrastructures)
Association of Global Automakers
ASTM International
Aston Martin Lagonda
ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
AT&T
ATA (American Trucking Associations)
ATEC ITS France
Athena Group
ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
Audi
Auto Alliance (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers)
Autoliv
Automatic Labs
Autotalks
Aventi Intelligent Communication
BAIC Group
Baidu
Battelle
BCE (Bell Canada)
Beijing BDStar Navigation
BJEV
BlackBerry
BMW Group
BMW Motorrad
Boréal Bikes
Brilliance Auto (Brilliance China Automotive Holdings)
Broadcom
Bureau Veritas
BYD
C2C-CC (CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium)
CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology)
CAICV (China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles)
CalAmp
CAMP (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership)
Carsmart (Beijing Carsmart Technology)
CAT (Cooperative Automated Transportation) Coalition
CCC (Car Connectivity Consortium)
CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
CDOT (Colorado Department of Transportation)
CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads)
CEN (European Committee for Standardization)
CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)
CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
Certicom
CEST Co. (Center for Embedded Software Technology)
CETECOM
CEVA
Changan Automobile
Chemtronics
Chery
China Mobile
China Telecom
China Transinfo
China Unicom
Chunghwa Telecom
CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)
CiDi (Changsha Intelligent Driving Institute)
Cisco Systems
C-ITS (China ITS Industry Alliance)
Clarion
CLEPA (European Association of Automotive Suppliers)
CMC (Connected Motorcycle Consortium)
CMIoT (China Mobile IoT)
CNH Industrial
Cohda Wireless
Commsignia
Confidex
Connected Signals
Continental
ConVeX (Connected Vehicle-to-Everything of Tomorrow) Consortium
CSTI (Council for Science, Technology and Innovation, Japan)
Cubic Corporation
Cubic Telecom
Cybercom Group
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation
DAF Trucks
Daimler
Daimler Trucks
Danlaw
Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group
DEKRA
Delphi Technologies
Denso Corporation
Derq
Desay SV Automotive
DFM (Dongfeng Motor Corporation)
DT (Deutsche Telekom)
DT&C
Ducati Motor Holding
DXC Technology
EATA (European Automotive and Telecom Alliance)
Econolite
EFKON
Ericsson
ERTICO – ITS Europe
ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research Advisory Council)
ESCRYPT
eSSys
ETAS
ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
Eurofins Scientific
European Commission
Faraday Future
FAW Group
FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles)
Ferrari
FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications)
FEV Group
Ficosa
Firefly LiFi (Firefly Wireless Networks)
Flex
FLIR Systems
Fluidmesh Networks
Ford Motor Company
Foresight Autonomous Holdings
Forward Electronics
Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems)
Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)
Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits)
Fraunhofer SIT (Institute for Secure Information Technology)
Fujitsu
GAC Group (Guangzhou Automobile Group)
GCF (Global Certification Forum)
Geely Auto
Geely Holding
Gemalto
GENIVI Alliance
Genvict
GM (General Motors)
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
Google
Gosuncn Technology Group
Great Wall Motor Company
Green Hills Software
Griiip
Groupe PSA
Groupe Renault
GSMA
HAAS Alert
Halla Group
Hancom MDS
Harada Industry
HARMAN International
Helix Technologies
HELLA
HERE Technologies
Hino Motors
Hirschmann Car Communication
HiSilicon
Hitachi
HKT
HNTB Corporation
Honda Motor Corporation
HORIBA MIRA
HSAE/Hangsheng Technology
Huali/iSmartWays Technology
Huawei
Hyundai Mobis
Hyundai Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Group
IAV
IBM Corporation
IDnomic
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
IMDA (Info-Communications Media Development Authority, Singapore)
IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group
Infineon Technologies
INRIX
Intel Corporation
InterDigital
Intertek
Invengo
IPC (Increment P Corporation)
ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
ISS (INTEGRITY Security Services)
Isuzu Motors
ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers)
Iteris
ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
iTRONICS
ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America)
ITS Asia-Pacific
ITS Australia
ITS Canada
ITS China
ITS Connect Promotion Consortium
ITS Info-Communications Forum
ITS Japan
ITS Korea
ITS Singapore
ITS Taiwan
ITS UK (United Kingdom)
ITT (IT Telecom)
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
Iveco
JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
Jin Woo Industrial
JISC (Japanese Industrial Standards Committee)
JLR (Jaguar Land Rover)
JRC (Japan Radio Company)
JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan)
Juniper Networks
JVCKENWOOD Corporation
Kapsch TrafficCom
Karamba Security
KATS (Korean Agency for Technology and Standards)
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
KDDI Corporation
Keysight Technologies
Kia Motors Corporation
KOSTAL Group (Leopold Kostal)
KPN
KSAE (Korean Society Automotive Engineers)
KT Corporation
KTM
Kymeta Corporation
Kyocera Corporation
LACROIX City/LACROIX Neavia
Laird
Lear Corporation
Leidos
Lenovo
Leonardo
Lesswire
LG Electronics
LG Innotek
Linux Foundation
LITE-ON Technology Corporation
LMT (Latvijas Mobilais Telefons)
LoJack
Longsung Technology
Lucid Motors
Luxoft
Lyft
Magna International
Magneti Marelli
Mahindra & Mahindra
MAN
Mando Corporation
Marben
Marvell
Mazda Motor Corporation
McCain
McLaren Automotive
Mediatek
MEMA (Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association)
Mentor
MET Labs (MET Laboratories)
Michelin
Microchip Technology
Microsemi Corporation
Microsoft Corporation
MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China)
MinebeaMitsumi Group
MINI
Mitsuba Corporation
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation
MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan)
Mobile Mark
Mobileye
Molex
MOLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, South Korea)
Motorola Mobility
Murata Manufacturing
NavInfo
Navistar
Navya
Nebula Link
NEC Corporation
NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)
Neology
Neoway Technology
Neusoft Reach
NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden)
Nexar
Nexus Group
NGMN Alliance
NI (National Instruments)
NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan)
NIO
Nissan Motor Corporation
NJR (New Japan Radio)
Nokia
Nordsys
Noris Network
NTT DoCoMo
NXP Semiconductors
NYC DOT (New York City Department of Transportation)
Objective Software
OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers)
Oki Electric Industry
Oledcomm
OmniAir Consortium
OnBoard Security
oneM2M
OnStar
OPPO
Orange
P3 Group
PACCAR
Panasonic Corporation
Parsons Corporation
PCCW
Peloton Technology
Penta Security Systems
Phantom Auto
PIARC (World Road Association)
Pioneer Corporation
POLIS (Cities and Regions for Transport Innovation)
Prettl Group
Proximus Group
Pulse Electronics
pureLiFi
Q-Free
Qianxun SI (Spatial Intelligence)
QNX Software Systems
Qorvo
Qosmotec Software Solutions
Qualcomm
Quectel Wireless Solutions
Queensland TMR (Department of Transport and Main Roads)
RANIX
Redpine Signals
Renesas Electronics Corporation
Robert Bosch
Rohde & Schwarz
ROHM Semiconductor
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars
RoyalTek
S.E.A. Datentechnik
SAE International
SAE-China (Society of Automotive Engineers of China)
Safety Spectrum Coalition
SAIC Motor Corporation
Saleen Automotive
Samsung Electronics
Sanjole
Sanyo Techno Solutions Tottori
Savari
Scania
SEAT
Security Innovation
Sensefields
Sequans Communications
SGS
Shanghai Gotell Communication Technology Holdings (roam2free)
Siemens
Sierra Wireless
SIMCom Wireless Solutions
Sinclair Broadcast Group
SiriusXM
SK C&C
SK Telecom
Škoda Auto
Skyworks Solutions
Smart Mobile Labs
Smarteq Wireless
SMARTRAC
Socionext
SoftBank Group
Spirent Communications
SsangYong Motor Company
STAR Systems International
STMicroelectronics
sTraffic
Subaru Corporation
Sumitomo Electric Industries
Sunsea AIoT
Suzuki Motor Corporation
Swarco
Synopsys
TAICS (Taiwan Association of Information and Communication Standards)
Taiwan Mobile
Taoglas
TAPCO (Traffic and Parking Control Company)
TASS International
Tata AutoComp Systems
Tata Elxsi
Tata Motors
TCA (Transport Certification Australia)
TE Connectivity
Telefónica Group
Telenor Connexion
Telenor Group
Telit Communications
Telstra
Telus Corporation
Tencent
Terranet
Tesla
THEA (Tampa-Hillsborough Expressway Authority)
TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
TIAA (Telematics Industry Application Alliance)
TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
TISA (Travelers Information Services Association)
Tome Software
TomTom
Toshiba Corporation
TowerJazz
Toyota Motor Corporation
TransCore
Transport Canada
TRATON
Trek Bicycle Corporation
TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
TTS (Traffic Technology Services)
TÜV Rheinland
TÜV SÜD
U.S. ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy)
U.S. FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
U.S. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration)
U.S. FMCSA (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration)
U.S. FTA (Federal Transit Administration)
U.S. NHTSA (National Highway Transportation Safety Administration)
U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
Uber Technologies
U-Blox
UL
UMTRI (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute)
UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
Unex Technology Corporation
Unicore Communications
Unisoc
USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation)
Valens
Valeo
VdTÜV (Association of Technical Inspection Agencies)
Vector Informatik
Veniam
Veoneer
Verizon Communications
Verizon Connect
Viavi Solutions
VIIC (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium)
Vinli
Visteon Corporation
VLNComm
Vodafone Group
Volkswagen Group
Volvo Cars
Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks
VT iDirect
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
Wanji Technology
Waymo
Wayties
Wieson Technologies
WISeKey
WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
WSP Global
WYDOT (Wyoming Department of Transport)
Xiaomi Corporation
Xilinx
Yamaha Motor Company
YoGoKo
Yokowo
ZF
Zotye Auto (Zotye Automobile International)
ZTE
 

 



目次

1 Chapter 1: Introduction ........... 44
1.1 Executive Summary ............... 44
1.2 Topics Covered .......... 46
1.3 Forecast Segmentation .......... 48
1.4 Key Questions Answered ................... 50
1.5 Key Findings ............... 52
1.6 Methodology ............. 54
1.7 Target Audience ......... 55
1.8 Companies & Organizations Mentioned ........ 56

2 Chapter 2: An Overview of V2X Communications ......... 62
2.1 What is V2X Communications? .......... 62
2.2 Key Characteristics of V2X Communications.............. 63
2.2.1 Types of V2X Communications ............ 63
2.2.1.1 V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle) ................ 64
2.2.1.2 V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) ...... 64
2.2.1.3 V2P/V2D (Vehicle-to-Pedestrian/Device) .............. 64
2.2.1.4 V2M (Vehicle-to-Motorcycle) ........ 65
2.2.1.5 V2N (Vehicle-to-Network) ............. 65
2.2.1.6 V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid), V2H (Vehicle-to-Home) & Adjacent-Concepts ....... 65
2.2.2 Transmission Modes ............... 66
2.2.2.1 Direct ......... 66
2.2.2.2 Multi-Hop .............. 66
2.2.2.3 Network-Assisted .............. 66
2.2.3 V2X Message Sets & Service Capabilities ........ 66
2.2.3.1 Periodic Awareness: CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message)/BSM (Basic Safety Message) Part 1.......... 67
2.2.3.2 Event Triggered Safety Alerts: DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages)/BSM Part 2 ........... 67
2.2.3.3 CPM (Collective Perception Message) ....... 68
2.2.3.4 MCM (Maneuver Coordination Message) ............. 68
2.2.3.5 SPaT (Signal Phase & Timing) ......... 68
2.2.3.6 MAP (Map Data Message) ............. 68
2.2.3.7 GNSS Correction ................ 69
2.2.3.8 SSM/SRM (Signal Status & Request Messages) ................. 69
2.2.3.9 PSM (Personal Safety Message) ................ 69
2.2.3.10 IVIM (Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Information Message), TIM/RSM (Traveler Information/Road Safety Message) ............. 69
2.2.3.11 BIM (Basic Information/Infrastructure Message) .............. 70
2.2.3.12 MCDM (Multimedia Content Dissemination Message) ................. 70
2.2.3.13 Video & Sensor Information Exchange ...... 70
2.2.3.14 Standard Voice & Data Services ................. 70
2.2.3.15 PVD (Probe Vehicle Data) .............. 71
2.2.3.16 PDM (Probe Data Management) ............... 71
2.2.3.17 Other V2X-Specific Message Types ............ 71
2.3 Wireless Technologies for V2X Communications ....... 73
2.3.1 IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) .......... 73
2.3.2 C-V2X (Cellular V2X) ................ 75
2.4 V2X Architecture & Key Elements ...... 76
2.4.1 Vehicular OBUs (On-Board Units) ....... 76
2.4.2 Non-Vehicular V2X-Capable Devices ............... 77
2.4.3 RSUs (Roadside Units) ............. 77
2.4.4 V2X Applications ......... 78
2.4.4.1 V2X Application Software .............. 78
2.4.4.2 V2X Middleware & Application Server ...... 78
2.4.5 V2X Control Function & Cellular Network-Specific Elements .............. 79
2.4.6 V2X Security Subsystem .......... 80
2.5 Key Applications Areas........... 80
2.5.1 Road Safety ................. 80
2.5.2 Traffic Management & Optimization .............. 80
2.5.3 Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information ...... 81
2.5.4 Transit & Public Transport ...... 81
2.5.5 Commercial Vehicle Operations .......... 81
2.5.6 Emergency Services & Public Safety................ 82
2.5.7 Environmental Sustainability .............. 82
2.5.8 Road Weather Management............... 82
2.5.9 Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications .......... 82
2.5.10 Value-Added Services ............. 83
2.6 V2X Business Models ............. 83
2.6.1 B2C (Business-to-Consumer): Premium Charge for Non-Safety Critical Applications.............. 83
2.6.2 B2B (Business-to-Business): V2X Capabilities for Enterprise Vehicle Fleets, Road Operators & Transportation Agencies ...... 84
2.6.3 B2B2X (Business-to-Business-to-Consumer/Business): Monetization Through Intermediaries .......... 84
2.7 Market Drivers ........... 85
2.7.1 Safety: Towards a Zero-Accident Environment ........... 85
2.7.2 Traffic Efficiency: Minimizing Congestion & Streamlining Traffic Flow ........... 85
2.7.3 Lessening the Environmental Impact of Transportation ......... 86
2.7.4 Facilitating the Adoption of Smart Mobility Applications ....... 86
2.7.5 Enabling Autonomous & Convenient Driving .............. 86
2.7.6 Economic & Societal Benefits .............. 88
2.7.7 Government-Led Efforts to Encourage V2X Adoption ............. 88
2.7.8 Maturation of Enabling Wireless Technologies ........... 88
2.8 Market Barriers .......... 89
2.8.1 Lack of Critical Mass of V2X Equipped Vehicles .......... 89
2.8.2 V2X Mandate Delays & Regulatory Uncertainties ....... 89
2.8.3 The IEEE 802.11p vs. C-V2X Debate ................ 89
2.8.4 Spectrum Sharing & Harmonization ................ 90
2.8.5 Security & Privacy Concerns................ 90
2.8.6 Technical Complexity of Implementation ....... 91
2.8.7 Business Model Challenges ................. 91
2.8.8 Public Acceptance ................... 91

3 Chapter 3: Key Enabling Technologies for V2X Communications .......... 92
3.1 Legacy DSRC/ITS Technologies........... 92
3.1.1 CEN DSRC/MDR-DSRC/TTT-DSRC ........ 92
3.1.2 915 MHz/UHF RFID ................. 93
3.1.3 Active DSRC Systems ............... 93
3.1.4 HDR DSRC .................... 94
3.1.5 ITS Spot/ETC 2.0 .......... 94
3.1.6 VICS (Vehicle Information and Communications System) ....... 94
3.2 IEEE 802.11p-Based DSRC Systems ................ 95
3.2.1 WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment) ................ 95
3.2.2 ITS-G5/C-ITS ................ 96
3.2.3 ITS Connect/ARIB STD-T109 ................ 97
3.2.4 Other Variants............. 98
3.3 C-V2X Technology .................. 99
3.3.1 LTE-V2X ......... 100
3.3.2 5G NR-V2X ................ 100
3.3.3 Interfaces for C-V2X Communications .......... 101
3.3.3.1 PC5/Sidelink for Direct V2V, V2I & V2P Communications ............ 101
3.3.3.1.1 Network-Coordinated Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 3 ...... 102
3.3.3.1.2 Distributed Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 4 ........... 103
3.3.3.2 LTE/NR-Uu for V2N Communications ...... 103
3.4 Other Wireless Technologies ........... 104
3.5 Complementary Technologies & Concepts .............. 105
3.5.1 On-Board Sensors & ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) ............... 105
3.5.1.1 Sensing Capabilities for Safety & Awareness ....... 105
3.5.1.2 Enabling Sophisticated ADAS Applications .......... 105
3.5.2 Vehicle Safety Systems.......... 106
3.5.2.1 Active Safety Systems ...... 106
3.5.2.2 Passive Safety & Countermeasures ......... 106
3.5.3 Other In-Vehicle Systems ...... 106
3.5.3.1 HMI (Human Machine Interface)/Display Systems .......... 106
3.5.3.2 Augmented Reality & HUDs (Head-Up-Displays) ............. 106
3.5.4 GNSS & Precise Positioning ............... 107
3.5.4.1 Enabling Lane-Level Accuracy for V2X Applications ......... 107
3.5.5 Big Data & Advanced Analytics ......... 108
3.5.5.1 Streaming & Processing Massive Volumes of V2X-Generated Data ........ 108
3.5.5.2 The Significance of Advanced Analytics ............... 108
3.5.6 Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning ................ 109
3.5.6.1 Self-Learning for Complex V2X Applications ........ 109
3.5.6.2 Powering Fully-Autonomous Vehicles ................. 110
3.5.7 Cloud Computing .................. 110
3.5.7.1 Centralized Processing for Delay-Tolerant & Wide-Area Applications ..... 111
3.5.8 Edge Computing .................... 111
3.5.8.1 Delivering Localized Processing Power for Latency-Sensitive V2X Applications .............. 111
3.5.9 Network Slicing ......... 111
3.5.9.1 Flexible Allocation of C-V2X Resources over Mobile Networks ............... 113

4 Chapter 4: V2X Application Scenarios & Use Cases ..... 114
4.1 Road Safety Applications ................. 114
4.1.1 V2V Safety Applications ........ 114
4.1.1.1 Longitudinal Collision Risk Warning ......... 114
4.1.1.1.1 Forward Collision Warning .............. 114
4.1.1.1.2 Frontal/Head-On Collision Warning ............ 115
4.1.1.2 Side Collision Risk Warning .......... 115
4.1.1.3 Intersection Collision Risk Warning ......... 115
4.1.1.4 Emergency Electronic Brake Lights .......... 116
4.1.1.5 Intersection Movement Assistance ......... 116
4.1.1.6 Intersection Priority Management .......... 116
4.1.1.7 Blind Spot Warning .......... 117
4.1.1.8 Lane Change Assistance ............... 117
4.1.1.9 Highway Merge Assistance .......... 117
4.1.1.10 Do Not Pass Warning ....... 118
4.1.1.11 Left/Right Turn Assistance ........... 118
4.1.1.12 Pre-Crash Sensing & Mitigation ............... 118
4.1.1.13 Post-Crash Warning ......... 118
4.1.1.14 Queue Warning ............... 119
4.1.1.15 Slow or Stationary Vehicle Warning ........ 119
4.1.1.16 Vehicle Breakdown Warning ....... 119
4.1.1.17 Control Loss Warning ...... 120
4.1.1.18 Safety System Malfunction Warning ....... 120
4.1.1.19 Wrong Way Driving Warning ....... 120
4.1.1.20 Drowsy or Distracted Driver Warning ...... 120
4.1.1.21 Overtaking Vehicle Warning ........ 121
4.1.1.22 Tailgating Advisory .......... 121
4.1.1.23 Transit Vehicle at Station/Stop Warnings ............ 121
4.1.1.24 Vehicle Turning in Front of a Transit Vehicle Warning ................. 121
4.1.1.25 V2V Situational Awareness .......... 121
4.1.1.26 Decentralized Floating Vehicle Data ........ 122
4.1.1.27 V2V Road Condition & Feature Notification ........ 122
4.1.1.28 V2V Hazardous Location Alert ................. 122
4.1.1.29 Cooperative Glare Reduction....... 123
4.1.1.30 Virtual Tow .......... 123
4.1.2 V2I Safety Applications ......... 123
4.1.2.1 In-Vehicle Signage, Speed Limits & Safety Information ............... 123
4.1.2.2 Infrastructure-Assisted Collision Risk Warning ................ 124
4.1.2.3 V2I-Based Emergency Brake Alert ........... 124
4.1.2.4 Public Transport & Emergency Vehicle Prioritization ...... 124
4.1.2.5 Intersection Safety & Management ......... 124
4.1.2.6 Red Light Violation Warning ........ 125
4.1.2.7 Railroad Crossing Violation Warning ....... 125
4.1.2.8 Stop Sign Violation Warning ........ 126
4.1.2.9 Stop Sign Movement Assistance .............. 126
4.1.2.10 Blind Merge Warning ....... 126
4.1.2.11 Exit Ramp Deceleration Warning ............. 126
4.1.2.12 Wrong Way Entry Warning .......... 127
4.1.2.13 Work Zone Warning ........ 127
4.1.2.14 Curve Speed Warning ...... 127
4.1.2.15 Reduced Speed Zone Warning ................. 128
4.1.2.16 Lane Closure or Shift Warning ................. 128
4.1.2.17 Restricted Lane Warnings ............ 128
4.1.2.18 Oversize Vehicle Warning ............ 128
4.1.2.19 Low Bridge Warning ........ 129
4.1.2.20 Low Parking Structure Warning ............... 129
4.1.2.21 V2I Situational Awareness ........... 129
4.1.2.22 V2I Road Condition & Feature Notification ......... 129
4.1.2.23 V2I Hazardous & Accident Prone Location Alert .............. 130
4.1.2.24 Dynamic Roadside Lighting .......... 130
4.1.2.25 Adaptive Headlamp Aiming ......... 130
4.1.3 V2P/V2D, V2M & Other Safety Applications ............. 130
4.1.3.1 Pedestrian, Cyclist & Other VRU (Vulnerable Road User) Detection ....... 130
4.1.3.2 VRU Collision Warning ................. 131
4.1.3.3 Pedestrian in Signalized Crosswalk Warning........ 131
4.1.3.4 Mobile Accessible Pedestrian Signal System ....... 131
4.1.3.5 Transit Pedestrian Indication ....... 132
4.1.3.6 Work Zone Safety Alerts for Maintenance Personnel ...... 132
4.1.3.7 Animal Crossing Warning............. 132
4.1.3.8 Motorcycle Approach Indication ............. 133
4.1.3.9 Motorcycle Approach Warning................ 133
4.1.3.10 Slow or Stationary Vehicle Warning for Motorcyclists ................ 134
4.2 Traffic Management & Optimization Applications ............... 134
4.2.1 Traffic Light Optimal Speed Advisory ............ 134
4.2.2 Intelligent Traffic Signal Control ........ 134
4.2.3 Intelligent On-Ramp Metering .......... 135
4.2.4 Traffic Signal Priority for Designated Vehicles........... 135
4.2.5 V2N-Based Traffic Flow Optimization ........... 135
4.2.6 Adaptive Traffic Jam Avoidance ........ 136
4.2.7 Dynamic Speed Harmonization ......... 136
4.2.8 CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) ............ 136
4.2.9 Flexible Lane Allocation & Control ................ 137
4.2.10 ETC (Electronic Toll Collection)/Free-Flow Road Use Charging ......... 137
4.2.11 Zone Access Control for Urban Areas............ 137
4.2.12 Road & Infrastructure Deterioration Diagnosis ......... 138
4.2.13 Probe Vehicle Data................ 138
4.2.13.1 Traffic Operations ............ 138
4.2.13.2 Road Network Monitoring, Maintenance & Planning ...... 139
4.2.13.3 Other Transport Agency Applications ...... 139
4.3 Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information Applications ...... 139
4.3.1 Traffic Information & Recommended Itinerary ......... 139
4.3.2 Enhanced Route Guidance and Navigation ............... 140
4.3.3 V2X-Assisted Positioning ....... 140
4.3.4 Point of Interest Notification ............ 140
4.3.5 Fueling Information for Conventional, Electric & Alternative Fuel Vehicles .............. 140
4.3.6 Limited Access Warning & Detour Notification ......... 141
4.3.7 Work Zone Traveler Information ...... 141
4.3.8 Enhanced ATIS (Advanced Traveler Information Systems)................ 141
4.3.9 Alternative Multi-Modal Transport Information ....... 142
4.3.10 Smart Parking ............ 142
4.3.11 Smart Park & Ride ................. 142
4.4 Transit & Public Transport Applications ....... 143
4.4.1 Dynamic Public Transport Operations........... 143
4.4.1.1 Real-Time Trip Requests .............. 143
4.4.1.2 Demand-Responsive Scheduling, Dispatching & Routing ............ 143
4.4.2 Transit Signal Priority ............ 144
4.4.3 Intermittent Bus Lanes .......... 144
4.4.4 Protection of Transit Connections ................ 144
4.4.5 Transit Stop Request ............. 145
4.4.6 Enhanced ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival) Service ............... 145
4.4.7 Real-Time Ridesharing .......... 145
4.4.8 Queue Management for Taxi Services .......... 145
4.4.9 Route Guidance for the Visually Impaired ................ 146
4.4.10 Mobile Payments for Public Transport .......... 146
4.5 Commercial Vehicle Fleet & Roadside Applications ............. 146
4.5.1 V2I-Based Data Collection for Fleet Management ................ 146
4.5.2 Hazardous Material Cargo Tracking .............. 147
4.5.3 Electronic Work Diaries ......... 147
4.5.4 Freight-Specific Travel Information & Dynamic Routing ....... 147
4.5.5 Drayage Operations Optimization ................. 148
4.5.6 Container/Chassis Security & Operational Monitoring ......... 148
4.5.7 Freight Signal Priority ............ 148
4.5.8 Loading Zone Management .............. 149
4.5.9 Smart Roadside Applications for Commercial Vehicles ......... 149
4.5.10 Wireless Roadside Inspections .......... 149
4.5.11 Smart Truck Parking .............. 150
4.5.12 Intelligent Speed Compliance ........... 150
4.5.13 Heavy Vehicle Road Use Monitoring ............. 150
4.6 Emergency Services & Public Safety Applications ................ 151
4.6.1 Approaching Emergency Vehicle Warning ................ 151
4.6.2 Emergency Vehicle Preemption ........ 151
4.6.3 Emergency Incident Traffic Management ................. 152
4.6.3.1 Incident Scene Pre-Arrival Staging Guidance for Emergency Responders ........... 152
4.6.3.2 Incident Scene Work Zone Alerts for Drivers & Workers ............. 152
4.6.3.3 Emergency Communications & Evacuation ......... 152
4.6.4 Vehicle-Associated Information Sharing for Emergency Response ............... 153
4.6.5 Automatic SOS/Crash Notification Relay ....... 153
4.6.6 Wide-Area Emergency Alerts ............ 153
4.6.7 Disaster-Related Traveler Information Broadcast ................. 154
4.6.8 Stolen Vehicle Notification & Tracking .......... 154
4.6.9 V2X-Assisted Border Management Systems ............. 154
4.7 Environmental Sustainability Applications ............... 155
4.7.1 Eco-Traffic Signal Timing ....... 155
4.7.2 Eco-Traffic Signal Priority ...... 155
4.7.3 Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized Intersections ................. 155
4.7.4 Eco-Speed Harmonization ................. 156
4.7.5 Eco-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control ................. 156
4.7.6 Eco-Ramp Metering .............. 156
4.7.7 Eco-Lanes Management ........ 156
4.7.8 Low Emissions Zone Management ................ 157
4.7.9 Dynamic Emissions Pricing ................ 157
4.7.10 Connected Eco-Driving .......... 157
4.7.11 Eco-Traveler Information Dissemination ...... 158
4.7.12 Predictive Eco-Routing .......... 158
4.7.13 Eco-Integrated Corridor Management .......... 158
4.7.14 Road Environment Monitoring ......... 158
4.8 Road Weather Management Applications ............... 159
4.8.1 V2X-Assisted Road Weather Performance Management...... 159
4.8.2 Real-Time Alerts and Advisories ........ 159
4.8.3 Spot Weather Impact Warning ......... 159
4.8.4 Road Weather Information for Commercial & Emergency Response Vehicles ......... 160
4.8.5 Weather Responsive Traffic Management ................ 160
4.8.6 Enhanced MDSS (Maintenance Decision Support Systems) .............. 161
4.8.7 Monitoring of Road Maintenance Vehicles & Operations ................. 161
4.9 Value Added Services........... 161
4.9.1 Electronic "Drive-Thru" Payments ................ 161
4.9.2 Wireless Advertising ............. 162
4.9.3 Automatic Vehicle-Based Access Control ...... 162
4.9.4 V2V Instant Messaging .......... 162
4.9.5 V2I & V2V-Assisted Internet Connectivity ................. 162
4.9.6 Media/Map Downloads ........ 163
4.9.7 Vehicle Software Provisioning & Updates ................. 163
4.9.8 Personal Data Synchronization ......... 163
4.9.9 Vehicle Caravan Organization ........... 164
4.9.10 Remote Diagnostics & Maintenance ............. 164
4.9.11 Rental Car Processing ............ 164
4.9.12 Insurance & Financial Services .......... 164
4.9.13 Electric Charging Station Management ......... 165
4.9.14 Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging ................ 165
4.9.15 Other Applications ................ 165
4.10 Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications ....... 166
4.10.1 Semi & Fully-Autonomous Driving ................ 166
4.10.2 Cooperative Automated Maneuvering ......... 167
4.10.3 Vehicle Platooning ................ 167
4.10.4 Coordinated Signaling for Autonomous Vehicles & Platoons ............ 168
4.10.5 Real-Time HD Mapping & Autonomous Navigation .............. 168
4.10.6 Extended Sensors for Situational Awareness ............ 169
4.10.7 See-Through Visibility ........... 169
4.10.8 Remote/Tele-Operated Driving ......... 170
4.10.9 Precision Positioning-Assisted Vulnerable Road User Protection ................. 170
4.10.10 Data Uploads for Autonomous Driving Algorithm Tuning ................. 171
4.10.11 Connected Powertrain Optimization ............ 172

5 Chapter 5: V2X Deployment Case Studies ...... 174
5.1 AACVTE (Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment): Setting a Standard for the Nationwide Implementation of V2X ........ 174
5.1.1 Historical Roots: SPMD (Safety Pilot Model Deployment) ................ 174
5.1.2 Transition from a Model Deployment to an Operational V2X Environment ............. 174
5.1.3 AACVTE Deployment Status .............. 175
5.1.4 Supported V2X Applications.............. 176
5.1.5 Key Achievements & Future Plans ................ 176
5.2 AURORA Connected Vehicle Test Bed: Promoting Safe, Smart Transportation Through V2X .......... 177
5.2.1 Supporting Efforts for Safe, Smart Transportation in British Columbia & Canada .... 177
5.2.2 AURORA Test Bed Overview ............. 177
5.2.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 178
5.2.4 Future Research Ventures ................. 178
5.3 BMW Group: Pushing C-V2X Adoption Worldwide .............. 179
5.3.1 Commitment to C-V2X Technology ............... 179
5.3.2 Efforts to Urge the Adoption of Technology-Neutral Legislation for V2X Communications .............. 179
5.3.3 V2X Engagements in Europe & Abroad ......... 180
5.3.4 Supported V2X Applications.............. 180
5.3.5 Commercial Rollout Plans ................. 181
5.4 CDOT's (Colorado Department of Transportation) RoadX: Building Colorado’s IoR (Internet of Roads) with V2X .............. 182
5.4.1 RoadX "Connection" Action Area: V2X Development Program ......... 182
5.4.2 V2X Deployment Status ........ 182
5.4.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 184
5.4.4 Future Plans for Full-Scale Deployment ........ 184
5.5 City of Wuxi's LTE-V2X Project: Deploying China's First City-Level V2X Implementation ..... 185
5.5.1 Establishing a City-Level LTE-V2X Demonstration Area ......... 185
5.5.2 V2X Deployment Status ........ 185
5.5.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 186
5.5.4 Next Steps & Plans for Full-Scale Adoption ............... 186
5.6 Daimler: Leveraging Cellular Technology for V2X Applications ........ 187
5.6.1 Daimler's Position on IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X Technologies............ 187
5.6.2 Car-to-X Communication via Cellular Radio .............. 187
5.6.3 V2X Engagements Worldwide ........... 188
5.6.4 Supported V2X Applications.............. 189
5.6.5 Commercial Rollout Plans ................. 189
5.7 Ford Motor Company: Fast Tracking C-V2X Technology into Vehicles ......... 190
5.7.1 Validating C-V2X Technology in Ford Vehicles .......... 190
5.7.2 V2X Engagements Worldwide ........... 190
5.7.2.1 United States ................... 190
5.7.2.2 Europe ................. 191
5.7.2.3 China ................... 191
5.7.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 191
5.7.4 Commercial Rollout Plans ................. 192
5.8 GM (General Motors): Commercializing the World's First 5.9 GHz V2X-Equipped Vehicles ............ 193
5.8.1 Rolling Out Production-Ready Vehicle Models with V2X Capabilities in North America ....... 193
5.8.2 Key Applications Supported by GM's V2X System ................. 193
5.8.2.1 V2V Applications.............. 194
5.8.2.2 Planned Support for V2I, V2P & Other Applications ........ 194
5.8.3 V2X-Equipped Vehicle Models .......... 195
5.8.4 Prospects of Commercializing V2X in Other Markets ............ 195
5.9 Groupe PSA: Pursuing Both IEEE 802.11p & C-V2X Technologies ................ 196
5.9.1 Technology-Neutral Approach Towards V2X ............ 196
5.9.2 V2X Engagements Worldwide ........... 196
5.9.2.1 IEEE 802.11p .................... 196
5.9.2.2 C-V2X ................... 197
5.9.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 197
5.9.4 Commercial Rollout Plans ................. 198
5.10 Groupe Renault: Testing V2X Connectivity Under Real-Life Traffic Conditions ........ 199
5.10.1 Support for ITS-G5/IEEE 802.11p ...... 199
5.10.2 SCOOP@F Project & Other V2X Engagements .......... 199
5.10.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 200
5.10.4 Commercial Rollout Plans ................. 200
5.11 HKT/PCCW: Utilizing V2X to Empower Smart & Safe Mobility in Hong Kong ........... 201
5.11.1 Smart Mobility Consortium: Building a C-V2X Powered Smart & Safe Mobility System ....... 201
5.11.2 Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations ............. 201
5.11.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 203
5.11.4 Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology ................ 203
5.12 InterCor (Interoperable Corridors): Streamlining the Implementation of Cross Border & Interoperable V2X Services ....... 204
5.12.1 Delivering Interoperable V2X Services Through a Sustainable Network of European C-ITS Corridors .......... 204
5.12.2 Relationship with the C-Roads Platform ....... 205
5.12.3 V2X Deployment Overview ............... 205
5.12.3.1 Dutch Section of the C-ITS Corridor (Netherlands-Germany-Austria) ...... 205
5.12.3.2 SCOOP@F: French Corridor ......... 206
5.12.3.3 United Kingdom's A2M2 Connected Corridor...... 206
5.12.3.4 Belgium/Flanders C-ITS Initiative ............. 206
5.12.4 Supported V2X Applications.............. 207
5.12.5 Testfests to Validate Common Specifications ........... 207
5.12.5.1 ITS-G5 Services ................ 207
5.12.5.2 GLOSA (Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory) Pre-Testfest ................. 208
5.12.5.3 PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) Security ............... 208
5.12.5.4 Hybrid ITS-G5/Cellular Communications ............. 208
5.12.5.5 Cross-Border Interoperability ...... 208
5.12.6 Next Steps: Project Completion, Harmonized V2X Specifications & Testing of Advanced V2X Applications ............. 209
5.13 Ipswich Connected Vehicle Pilot: Laying the Technical Foundations for V2X Rollouts in Australia .............. 210
5.13.1 Preparing for the Arrival of V2X on Queensland Roads......... 210
5.13.2 Pilot Planning & Deployment Status ............. 210
5.13.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 211
5.13.4 Plans for On-Road Testing & Next Steps ....... 211
5.14 JLR (Jaguar Land Rover): Making Journeys Safe, Comfortable & Stress-Free with V2X ........ 212
5.14.1 Enhancing ADAS Capabilities with V2X for Safe & Comfortable Driving ........ 212
5.14.2 V2X Engagements in the United Kingdom................. 212
5.14.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 214
5.14.4 Commercial Rollout Plans ................. 214
5.15 NTT DoCoMo: Leading the Path Towards Connected Cars & Roads of the Future with V2X ........... 215
5.15.1 Developing C-V2X Technology to Support Future Mobility Use Cases .......... 215
5.15.2 Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations ............. 215
5.15.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 216
5.15.4 Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology ................ 217
5.16 SAIC Motor Corporation: Powering Intelligent Connected Vehicles with V2X ......... 218
5.16.1 Advancing the Development of V2X to Facilitate Intelligent Driving ............. 218
5.16.2 V2X Engagements in China................ 218
5.16.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 220
5.16.4 Commercial Rollout Plans ................. 220
5.17 Telstra: Making Australia's Roads Safe, More Efficient & Better-Prepared for Autonomous Driving with V2X ....... 221
5.17.1 Telstra's V2X Project: Focus on Safety, Traffic Efficiency & Autonomous Driving ..... 221
5.17.2 Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations ............. 221
5.17.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 222
5.17.4 Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology ................ 222
5.18 Toyota Motor Corporation: Bringing V2X to Mass-Market Vehicle Models ............. 223
5.18.1 ITS Connect: Commercializing the World's First DSRC-Based V2X System in Japan .............. 223
5.18.2 Key Applications Supported by the ITS Connect System ....... 223
5.18.2.1 V2V Applications.............. 223
5.18.2.2 V2I Applications ............... 225
5.18.2.3 Planned Support for V2P & Other Applications ............... 226
5.18.3 V2X-Equipped Vehicle Models & RSU Installation in Japan ............... 226
5.18.4 Future Plans to Introduce V2X-Equipped Vehicles in the United States & Other Countries ............. 226
5.19 USDOT Connected Vehicle Pilots: Helping V2X Make the Final Leap into Real-World Deployment ............ 228
5.19.1 NYC DOT (New York City Department of Transportation) Connected Vehicle Pilot .............. 228
5.19.1.1 Pilot Deployment Overview ......... 229
5.19.1.2 Supported V2X Applications ........ 229
5.19.1.3 Current Status of the Pilot Deployment............... 230
5.19.2 THEA (Tampa-Hillsborough Expressway Authority) Connected Vehicle Pilot ............ 230
5.19.2.1 Pilot Deployment Overview ......... 230
5.19.2.2 Supported V2X Applications ........ 230
5.19.2.3 Current Status of the Pilot Deployment............... 231
5.19.3 WYDOT (Wyoming Department of Transport) Connected Vehicle Pilot ....... 231
5.19.3.1 Pilot Deployment Overview ......... 232
5.19.3.2 Supported V2X Applications ........ 232
5.19.3.3 Current Status of the Pilot Deployment............... 232
5.19.4 Future Plans for Post-Pilot Operations .......... 233
5.20 Vodafone Group: Improving Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency with V2X ...... 234
5.20.1 Creating a Step-Change in Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency .............. 234
5.20.2 Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations ............. 234
5.20.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 236
5.20.4 Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology ................ 236
5.21 Volkswagen Group: Pioneering the Rollout of V2X-Equipped Vehicles in Europe ... 237
5.21.1 WLANp: Group-Wide Implementation of IEEE 802.11p-Based V2X Technology in 2019 ...... 237
5.21.1.1 Supported V2X Applications ........ 237
5.21.1.2 Efforts to Accelerate the Adoption of V2X Technology ............... 238
5.21.1.3 Integrating V2X-Capable Roadside Infrastructure & Other Road Users ... 238
5.21.2 Audi: Delivering V2I Applications via On-Board LTE Connectivity ................. 238
5.21.3 Ducati Motor Holding: Developing V2X Interoperability Between Motorcycles, Vehicles & Infrastructure ............. 239
5.21.4 SEAT: Advancing V2X-Based Assisted Driving Applications ............... 239
5.21.5 TRATON (Scania & MAN): Piloting Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications .............. 240
5.22 Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks: Enabling Truck Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications with V2X ........ 241
5.22.1 Utilizing V2X to Develop Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications ..... 241
5.22.2 V2X Engagements Worldwide ........... 241
5.22.3 Supported V2X Applications.............. 242
5.22.4 Commercial Rollout Plans ................. 242
5.23 Other Notable V2X Engagements ................ 243
5.23.1 Automotive OEM Commitments ....... 243
5.23.2 Mobile Operator-Led C-V2X Projects & Trials ........... 250
5.23.3 Other Commercial, Pilot & Trial V2X Deployments ............... 256

6 Chapter 6: V2X Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage ..... 258
6.1 Frequency Bands for V2X Communications ............. 258
6.1.1 Legacy V2I Systems ............... 258
6.1.1.1 915 MHz .............. 258
6.1.1.2 Other Sub-1 GHz Bands ............... 258
6.1.1.3 2.4 GHz ................ 259
6.1.1.4 5.8 GHz ................ 259
6.1.2 Advanced V2X Technologies ............. 259
6.1.2.1 760 MHz .............. 259
6.1.2.2 3.4 – 3.8 GHz ................... 259
6.1.2.3 5.9 GHz ................ 260
6.1.2.4 Higher Frequencies .......... 260
6.2 North America ......... 261
6.2.1 United States ............ 261
6.2.2 Canada .......... 262
6.3 Asia Pacific ............... 262
6.3.1 Australia .................... 262
6.3.2 China ............. 262
6.3.3 Japan ............. 263
6.3.4 South Korea .............. 263
6.3.5 Singapore .................. 263
6.3.6 Taiwan .......... 264
6.3.7 Thailand .................... 264
6.3.8 India .............. 264
6.3.9 Rest of Asia Pacific ................ 265
6.4 Europe ......... 265
6.4.1 EU & EFTA Countries ............. 265
6.4.2 Turkey ........... 266
6.4.3 Russia ............ 266
6.4.4 Other Countries .................... 267
6.5 Middle East & Africa ............ 267
6.5.1 GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) ........ 267
6.5.2 Iran ................ 268
6.5.3 Israel ............. 268
6.5.4 South Africa .............. 268
6.5.5 Rest of the Middle East & Africa ....... 268
6.6 Latin & Central America ................... 269
6.6.1 Brazil ............. 269
6.6.2 Mexico .......... 269
6.6.3 Rest of Latin & Central America ........ 269

7 Chapter 7: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives .... 270
7.1 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) .............. 270
7.1.1 Release 14: LTE-V2X/Phase 1 ............ 270
7.1.2 Release 15: eV2X (Enhanced V2X)/Phase 2 ............... 271
7.1.3 Release 16: 5G NR-V2X/Phase 3 ....... 272
7.2 5GAA (5G Automotive Association) ............. 272
7.2.1 5G/C-V2X Advocacy Efforts ............... 272
7.2.2 Working Groups .................... 272
7.2.2.1 WG1: Use Cases & Technical Requirements ........ 273
7.2.2.2 WG2: System Architecture & Solution Development ...... 273
7.2.2.3 WG3: Evaluation, Testbeds & Pilots ........ 273
7.2.2.4 WG4: Standards & Spectrum ....... 273
7.2.2.5 WG5: Business Models & Go-To-Market Strategies ........ 274
7.3 5G-Connected Mobility Consortium ............ 274
7.3.1 5G-Based V2X R&D Efforts ................ 274
7.4 AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) ..... 275
7.4.1 Frequency Coordination for V2X Communications ............... 275
7.4.2 V2X Policy, Deployment Guidance & Related Efforts ............ 275
7.4.3 Work on Connected Autonomous Driving ................ 276
7.5 ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers' Association) ............. 276
7.5.1 Connected & Automated Driving-Related Work ....... 276
7.6 AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium) ................ 277
7.6.1 Edge Computing System Design for V2I & V2N Applications ............ 277
7.7 Amsterdam Group ............... 277
7.7.1 V2X Deployment Roadmap ............... 277
7.7.2 Corridor Initiatives ................ 278
7.7.3 Functional Specifications & Other V2X-Related Efforts ......... 278
7.8 ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan) ......... 278
7.8.1 ARIB STD T75: 5.8 GHz DSRC System for V2I Applications................. 279
7.8.2 ARIB STD T88: DSRC Application Sub-Layer ............... 279
7.8.3 ARIB STD T110: DSRC Basic Application Interface ................. 279
7.8.4 ARIB STD-T109: 760 MHz Advanced V2X System ...... 279
7.9 U.S. ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy) .......... 280
7.9.1 NEXTCAR (Next-Generation Energy Technologies for Connected & Automated On-Road Vehicles) ............ 280
7.9.1.1 Use of V2X Connectivity for Vehicle Control & Powertrain Optimization ............ 280
7.10 ASECAP (European Association of Operators of Toll Road Infrastructures) ............. 281
7.10.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 281
7.11 Association of Global Automakers ............... 281
7.11.1 Connected Automation Advocacy ................. 281
7.12 ASTM International .............. 282
7.12.1 Legacy DSRC Standards ......... 282
7.12.2 ASTM E2213-03: 5.9 GHz DSRC MAC & PHY Specifications ............... 282
7.13 ATA (American Trucking Associations) ......... 283
7.13.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 283
7.14 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions) ............. 283
7.14.1 V2X Security Guidance & Requirements ....... 283
7.14.2 Other V2X-Related Work ...... 284
7.15 Auto Alliance (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers) ....... 284
7.15.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 284
7.16 AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture)........... 285
7.16.1 V2X Stack Specifications........ 285
7.17 C2C-CC (CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium) ............... 285
7.17.1 BSP (Basic System Profile) for V2X Systems in Europe .......... 285
7.17.2 PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) for V2X Security ........ 286
7.17.3 Advocacy Efforts to Preserve the 5.9 GHz Band for ITS-G5 ............... 286
7.17.4 Other V2X-Related Efforts ................. 286
7.18 CAICV (China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles) ............ 287
7.18.1 V2X Working Group .............. 287
7.19 CAMP (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership) ......... 288
7.19.1 SCMS (Security Credential Management System) for V2X Communications ............ 288
7.19.2 Other V2X-Related Efforts ................. 288
7.20 CAT (Cooperative Automated Transportation) Coalition ................. 289
7.20.1 CAV-ELT (Connected & Automated Vehicle Executive Leadership Team): CAV-Focused Working Groups ... 289
7.20.2 V2I DC (Vehicle to Infrastructure Deployment Coalition): V2I Working Groups........ 289
7.21 CCC (Car Connectivity Consortium).............. 290
7.21.1 V2X-Related Projects............. 290
7.22 CCSA (China Communications Standards Association) ........ 291
7.22.1 LTE-V2X Standardization ....... 291
7.23 CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads) ............ 291
7.23.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 291
7.24 ConVeX (Connected Vehicle-to-Everything of Tomorrow) Consortium ....... 292
7.24.1 C-V2X Field Trials & Demonstrations ............ 292
7.25 CEN (European Committee for Standardization) ................. 293
7.25.1 CEN TC 278 ................ 293
7.25.1.1 CEN DSRC Family of Standards ................ 293
7.25.1.2 EFC (Electronic Feed Collection) & V2I Applications ........ 293
7.25.1.3 Standards for C-ITS/Advanced V2X Systems ........ 294
7.26 CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) ....... 295
7.26.1 ITS-Related Standards ........... 295
7.27 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) ............. 296
7.27.1 ECC (Electronic Communications Committee) .......... 296
7.27.2 WG SE (Working Group Spectrum Engineering) ........ 296
7.27.3 Frequency Arrangement for V2X Communications in Europe ........... 296
7.28 C-ITS (China ITS Industry Alliance) ............... 297
7.28.1 Chinese National Standards for V2X ............. 297
7.29 CLEPA (European Association of Automotive Suppliers) ...... 298
7.29.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 298
7.30 CMC (Connected Motorcycle Consortium) .............. 298
7.30.1 Standardization for Motorcycle-Specific V2X Systems .......... 298
7.30.2 Feasibility Testing & Prototyping ...... 299
7.31 EATA (European Automotive and Telecom Alliance) ........... 299
7.31.1 Efforts to Facilitate the Deployment of Connected & Automated Driving .... 300
7.32 ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research Advisory Council) ................. 300
7.32.1 Working Group on Connectivity & Automated Driving ......... 300
7.33 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) .............. 301
7.33.1 TC ITS (Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems) ............ 301
7.33.1.1 ETSI TR 101 607: C-ITS (Cooperative ITS) Release 1 ......... 301
7.33.1.2 ETSI EN 302 663: ITS-G5 Access Layer Standard .............. 302
7.33.1.3 ETSI TS 102 724: Harmonized Channel Specifications for ITS-G5 ............. 302
7.33.1.4 ETSI TS 102 792: Co-Existence Between CEN DSRC & ITS-G5 ....... 302
7.33.1.5 ETSI TS 102 687/103 175: DCC (Decentralized Congestion Control) Mechanisms ........... 303
7.33.1.6 ETSI EN 302 665: ITS Communications Architecture ........ 303
7.33.1.7 ETSI EN 302 637-2: CAMs (Cooperative Awareness Messages) ............... 303
7.33.1.8 ETSI EN 302 637-3: DENMs (Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages) ........ 304
7.33.1.9 ETSI EN 302 895: LDM (Local Dynamic Map) Specification .......... 304
7.33.1.10 ETSI TS 103 301: Protocols & Communication Requirements for Infrastructure Services ........... 304
7.33.1.11 ETSI TS 101 539 Series: Safety-Related V2X Applications ............ 304
7.33.1.12 ETSI TS 101 556 Series: V2I Applications.............. 305
7.33.1.13 ETSI TS 102 894-1: Facility Layer Structure, Functional Requirements & Specifications .............. 305
7.33.1.14 TS 102 890 Series: Additional Facility Layer Specifications .......... 305
7.33.1.15 ETSI TS 102 894-2: Common Data Dictionary ...... 305
7.33.1.16 ETSI EN 302 636 Series: GeoNetworking Protocol ........... 306
7.33.1.17 ETSI TS 102 731, 102 940-943, 103 097: V2X Security Standards ............ 306
7.33.1.18 Other Release 1 Standards .......... 307
7.33.1.19 Work on C-ITS Release 2 & Advanced V2X Applications .............. 307
7.33.2 ETSI TC ERM (Electromagnetic Compatibility & Radio Spectrum Matters) ... 308
7.33.2.1 ETSI EN 302 571: Harmonized Standard for ITS-G5 (5.9 GHz) Spectrum .............. 308
7.33.2.2 ETSI EN 302 686: Harmonized Standard for 63 – 64 GHz ITS Spectrum ... 308
7.33.3 Other Complementary Standards ................. 309
7.34 EU Mandates & Directives ............... 309
7.34.1 Action Plan for the Deployment of ITS .......... 309
7.34.2 Mandate M/453 on Cooperative Systems for Intelligent Transport ............. 309
7.34.3 EU ITS Directive 2010/40/EU ............ 310
7.34.4 Supporting Groups for the EU ITS Directive .............. 310
7.34.4.1 EIC (European ITS Committee)................. 310
7.34.4.2 European ITS Advisory Group ............... 310
7.34.5 Mandate M/546 on Urban ITS .......... 311
7.34.6 Declaration of Amsterdam on Connected & Automated Driving ...... 311
7.34.7 COM (2016) 766: EU C-ITS Strategy .............. 311
7.34.8 Letter of Intent on Cooperative, Connected & Automated Mobility............. 312
7.34.9 Third EU Mobility Package ................ 312
7.34.10 C-ITS Delegated Act Under Directive 2010/40/EU: Specifications for the Provision of C-ITS ............ 313
7.35 EU-Funded V2X Deployment Initiatives & Projects .............. 313
7.35.1 C-ITS Deployment Platform ............... 313
7.35.2 C-Roads Platform .................. 314
7.35.3 Cooperative ITS Corridor ....... 314
7.35.4 InterCor (Interoperable Corridors) ................ 315
7.35.5 CONCORDA (Connected Corridor for Driving Automation) ............... 315
7.35.6 C-MobILE (Accelerating C-ITS Mobility Innovation & Deployment in Europe) .......... 315
7.35.7 NEWBITS (New Business models for ITS) ...... 316
7.35.8 CIMEC (Cooperative ITS for Mobility in European Cities) ...... 316
7.35.9 CODECS (Cooperative ITS Deployment Coordination Support) ......... 316
7.35.10 MAVEN (Managing Automated Vehicles Enhances Network) ........... 317
7.35.11 TransAID (Transition Areas for Infrastructure-Assisted Driving) ....... 317
7.35.12 Auto C-ITS ................. 317
7.35.13 C-V2X Projects ........... 318
7.35.13.1 5GCAR (Fifth Generation Communication Automotive Research & Innovation) ............. 318
7.35.13.2 5GCroco (5G Cross Border Control) ......... 318
7.35.13.3 5G-Carmen (5G for Connected & Automated Road Mobility in the European Union) .... 319
7.35.13.4 5G-Mobix (5G for Cooperative & Connected Automated Mobility on X-Border Corridors) ......... 319
7.35.14 Other EU-Funded Projects ................ 319
7.35.15 CAD (Connected Automated Driving) Initiative ......... 323
7.35.15.1 ARCADE (Aligning Research & Innovation for Connected & Automated Driving in Europe) ........ 323
7.35.15.2 CARTRE (Coordination of Automated Road Transport Deployment for Europe) ............. 323
7.35.15.3 SCOUT (Safe & COnnected AUtomation in Road Transport)........ 324
7.35.15.4 EUCAD (European Conference on Connected & Automated Driving) ...... 324
7.35.16 Round Table on CAD (Connected & Automated Driving) ...... 324
7.35.17 Gear 2030 HLG (High Level Group) ............... 325
7.36 EU-US C-ITS Task Force .................... 326
7.36.1 HWG (Standards Harmonization Working Group) & HTGs (Harmonization Task Groups) .... 326
7.36.1.1 HTG 1: ITS Security .......... 326
7.36.1.2 HTG 2: BSM (Basic Safety Message)/CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message) Harmonization ... 326
7.36.1.3 HTG 3: ITS Communications ........ 327
7.36.1.4 HTG 4/5: Infrastructure Messages ........... 327
7.36.1.5 HTG 6: C-ITS Security Policy ......... 327
7.36.1.6 HTG 7: Standards Selection, Gap Analysis & Identifiers ............... 327
7.36.1.7 HTG 8 & 9: Candidate Future Work Items ........... 328
7.37 GCF (Global Certification Forum) ................. 328
7.37.1 C-V2X Certification Program ............. 328
7.38 GENIVI Alliance .................... 328
7.38.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 329
7.39 GSMA ........... 329
7.39.1 C-V2X Advocacy Efforts ......... 329
7.40 IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) ................. 329
7.40.1 ISO/IEC JTC 1 ............. 330
7.40.1.1 SC31 WG4: RFID Standards for V2I Applications.............. 330
7.40.1.2 Other V2X-Related Standardization Activities ................. 330
7.41 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) ........ 330
7.41.1 IEEE 802.11p/OCB for V2X Communications............. 331
7.41.2 IEEE 1609.x Family of Standards for WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) .... 331
7.41.3 IEEE 802.11 NGV (Next Generation V2X) Study Group .......... 333
7.41.3.1 IEEE 802.11bd Amendment Project ......... 333
7.41.4 IEEE P2040 for Connected, Automated & Intelligent Vehicles .......... 334
7.41.5 IEEE P2690 for Charging Network Management Protocol in Electric Vehicle Charging Systems ....... 334
7.41.6 Other Relevant Standards ................. 334
7.42 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) ........ 335
7.42.1 IPWAVE (IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) WG ........... 335
7.42.1.1 IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB .......... 336
7.43 IMDA (Info-Communications Media Development Authority, Singapore) ............... 336
7.43.1 TSAC (Telecommunications Standards Advisory Committee) ........... 336
7.43.1.1 Technical Specification for DSRC ............. 336
7.44 IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group ................. 337
7.44.1 C-V2X Working Group ........... 337
7.45 ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada) ................. 337
7.45.1 Spectrum Allocation for V2X ............. 338
7.45.2 RSS-252: Certification Requirements for V2X OBU Devices .............. 338
7.46 ISO (International Organization for Standardization) .......... 339
7.46.1 TC 204 ........... 339
7.46.1.1 V2X Communications ...... 339
7.46.1.2 V2X Applications & Complementary Technologies .......... 340
7.46.1.3 V2X Security......... 340
7.47 ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers) .............. 341
7.47.1 Connected Vehicle Initiative ............. 341
7.47.2 Cybersecurity Framework & Tools for Roadway Infrastructure ........ 341
7.47.3 Other V2X-Related Efforts ................. 342
7.48 ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America) ........... 342
7.48.1 V2X Spectrum Advocacy ....... 342
7.48.2 V2X Task Force .......... 343
7.48.3 Other V2X-Related Efforts ................. 343
7.49 ERTICO – ITS Europe ............ 343
7.49.1 V2X Research, Pilot & Deployment Project Management................. 343
7.49.2 Other Efforts Related to Connected & Automated Driving ............... 344
7.50 Other National & Regional ITS Representative Societies ................. 344
7.50.1 ATEC ITS France......... 344
7.50.2 ITS Asia-Pacific .......... 344
7.50.3 ITS Australia .............. 345
7.50.4 ITS Canada ................ 345
7.50.5 ITS China ................... 345
7.50.6 ITS Japan ................... 345
7.50.7 ITS Korea ................... 346
7.50.8 ITS Singapore ............ 346
7.50.9 ITS Taiwan ................. 346
7.50.10 ITS UK (United Kingdom) ....... 347
7.50.11 Others ........... 347
7.51 ITS Connect Promotion Consortium ............ 347
7.51.1 TD-001: Inter-Vehicle Communication Message Specifications ........ 347
7.51.2 Other Specifications & Guidelines ................. 348
7.52 ITS Info-Communications Forum ................. 348
7.52.1 Guidelines for 760 MHz & 5.8 GHz V2X Systems ....... 348
7.52.2 Work on C-V2X/Technology-Neutral Applications ................ 349
7.53 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) ........ 349
7.53.1 ITU-R (ITU Radiocommunication Sector) ....... 350
7.53.1.1 SG5 WP5A, WG 5A-5 (Study Group 5, Working Party 5A, Working Group 5) ...... 350
7.53.1.2 M.1453: ITS – DSRC at 5.8 GHz ................ 350
7.53.1.3 M.1890: Guidelines & Objectives for ITS ............. 350
7.53.1.4 M.2084: Radio Interface Standards of V2X Communications for ITS Applications .......... 351
7.53.1.5 M.[ITS_FRQ]: Harmonization of Frequency Bands for ITS............ 351
7.53.1.6 V2X-Related Study Items & Supplementary Reports ....... 351
7.53.2 ITU-T (ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector) ....... 352
7.53.2.1 SG17: Recommendations for V2X Security .......... 352
7.53.2.2 SG20: Framework & Requirements for C-ITS/Safety-Related Services .... 352
7.53.2.3 V2X-Related Recommendations in Other SGs ................. 353
7.53.2.4 CITS (Collaboration on ITS Communication Standards) ............... 353
7.54 JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) ........ 353
7.54.1 V2X-Related Standards ......... 354
7.55 JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan) ................ 354
7.55.1 ITS Standardization Committee ........ 354
7.55.1.1 V2X-Related Standardization Work ......... 354
7.56 KATS (Korean Agency for Technology and Standards) ......... 355
7.56.1 V2X-Related Standardization Efforts ............. 355
7.57 KSAE (Korean Society Automotive Engineers) ......... 355
7.57.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 355
7.58 Linux Foundation ................. 356
7.58.1 AGL (Automotive Grade Linux): Open Software Stack for Connected Vehicles ......... 356
7.59 MEMA (Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association) ............... 356
7.59.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 357
7.60 MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China) ...... 357
7.60.1 CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology) ... 357
7.60.1.1 V2X Development, Testing & Promotion in China ........... 357
7.61 MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan) ...... 358
7.61.1 V2X Deployment & Related Efforts ............... 358
7.62 MOLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, South Korea) ........ 358
7.62.1 C-ITS Pilot Project .................. 359
7.62.2 Other V2X Related Efforts ................. 359
7.63 U.S. NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research Program) ................. 359
7.63.1 NCHRP 20-102: Impacts of Connected Vehicles & Automated Vehicles on State & Local Transportation Agencies ............. 359
7.63.2 NCHRP 03-127: Cybersecurity of Traffic Management Systems ....... 361
7.63.3 NCHRP 20-24(98): Connected/Automated Vehicle Research Roadmap for AASHTO ............ 361
7.63.4 Other Projects ........... 361
7.64 NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) ....... 362
7.64.1 NTCIP (National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol) .............. 362
7.65 NGMN Alliance .................... 363
7.65.1 V2X Task Force & White Paper .......... 363
7.66 NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan) ............. 364
7.66.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 364
7.67 U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) ............ 364
7.67.1 CSF (Cybersecurity Framework) ........ 365
7.67.1.1 Application of NIST's CSF to Connected Vehicle Environments ............... 365
7.68 OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers) ........... 365
7.68.1 V2X Standards Harmonization Efforts ........... 365
7.69 OmniAir Consortium ............ 366
7.69.1 Connected Vehicle Certification Program ................. 366
7.69.2 Other V2X-Related Activities ............. 366
7.70 oneM2M .................. 367
7.70.1 V2X-Related Standardization Efforts ............. 367
7.71 PIARC (World Road Association) ...... 367
7.71.1 Task Force B.1: V2X Technology in Road Design & Infrastructure ................. 367
7.71.2 Task Force B.2: Automated Vehicles ............. 368
7.71.3 Other V2X-Related Activities ............. 368
7.72 POLIS (Cities and Regions for Transport Innovation) ........... 368
7.72.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 368
7.73 SAE International ................. 369
7.73.1 DSRC TC (Technical Committee) ........ 369
7.73.1.1 SAE J2735: DSRC Message Set Dictionary ............ 369
7.73.1.2 SAE J2945/x Suite of Standards for V2X Applications ...... 370
7.73.1.3 Other DSRC TC Standards ............ 371
7.73.2 C-V2X TC (Technical Committee) ...... 372
7.73.2.1 SAE J3161: On-Board System Requirements for LTE V2X/V2V Safety Communications .............. 372
7.73.2.2 Standardization Efforts for Advanced V2X Applications .............. 373
7.73.2.3 SAE J3186: MSCS (Maneuver Sharing & Coordinating Service) ................ 373
7.73.2.4 Addressing the Needs of Road Operators ............ 374
7.73.3 Vehicle Cybersecurity Systems Engineering Committee ....... 374
7.73.3.1 J3061: Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Automotive Systems .......... 374
7.73.3.2 Other Vehicle Cybersecurity Standards ............... 375
7.73.4 Other V2X-Related Standards ........... 375
7.74 SAE-China (Society of Automotive Engineers of China) ....... 376
7.74.1 T/CSAE 53-2017: V2X Application Layer Standard ................ 376
7.74.2 Other V2X-Related Efforts ................. 376
7.75 Safety Spectrum Coalition ............... 377
7.75.1 V2X Spectrum Advocacy ....... 377
7.76 SIP (Japan's Cross-Ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program) ................ 377
7.76.1 SIP-adus (Automated Driving for Universal Services) ............ 377
7.76.1.1 V2X-Related R&D Efforts ............. 378
7.77 TAICS (Taiwan Association of Information and Communication Standards) ............ 378
7.77.1 TC8 (Technical Committee 8): IoV (Internet of Vehicles) & Automated Driving ........ 378
7.78 TCA (Transport Certification Australia) ........ 379
7.78.1 C-ITS Standardization, Interoperability, Security & Related-Efforts .............. 379
7.78.2 National Telematics Framework: Facilitating Telematics-Related V2X Applications ............. 379
7.79 TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) ...... 380
7.79.1 V2X-Related Advocacy Efforts ........... 380
7.80 TIAA (Telematics Industry Application Alliance) ...... 380
7.80.1 V2X-Related Standards, Demonstrations & Testing .............. 380
7.81 TISA (Travelers Information Services Association) ............... 381
7.81.1 V2X-Related Activities ........... 381
7.82 Transport Canada ................ 381
7.82.1 National Framework & Programs for Automated & Connected Vehicles ..... 381
7.82.2 Canada-U.S RCC (Regulatory Cooperation Council): Connected Vehicles Work-Plan............ 382
7.83 TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)............... 382
7.83.1 Vehicle Communications System Standards ............. 382
7.84 TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan) ............... 383
7.84.1 V2X-Related Standardization Efforts ............. 383
7.85 UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) ............ 384
7.85.1 WP.29 (Working Party 29): World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations ..... 384
7.85.2 Working Party on Automated/Autonomous & Connected Vehicles ............. 384
7.86 USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation) ........... 385
7.86.1 ITS Joint Program Office ........ 385
7.86.2 CV (Connected Vehicle) Program ...... 385
7.86.2.1 CV Pilot Deployments ...... 386
7.86.2.2 CV Application Prototyping.......... 386
7.86.3 Connected Autonomous Vehicle Research ............... 387
7.86.4 ITS Standards Program .......... 387
7.86.5 ARC-IT (Architecture Reference for Cooperative & Intelligent Transportation) ........ 388
7.86.6 U.S. NHTSA (National Highway Transportation Safety Administration) ........ 389
7.86.6.1 FMVSS 150: V2V NPRM (Notice of Proposed Rulemaking) for Light Vehicles ...... 389
7.86.6.2 Heavy Vehicle V2V Research ....... 389
7.86.6.3 DOT HS 812 333: Cybersecurity for Modern Vehicles ...... 390
7.86.7 U.S. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration) .......... 390
7.86.7.1 V2I Deployment Guidance ........... 390
7.86.7.2 CARMA (Cooperative Automation Research Mobility Applications) Platform ..... 391
7.86.8 U.S. FMCSA (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration) .............. 391
7.86.8.1 V2X Applications for Commercial Vehicles .......... 391
7.86.9 U.S. FTA (Federal Transit Administration) ................. 391
7.86.9.1 V2X Applications for Public Transit Systems ........ 392
7.87 VdTÜV (Association of Technical Inspection Agencies) ........ 392
7.87.1 ITS-G5 Advocacy Efforts ........ 392
7.88 VIIC (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium) .......... 392
7.88.1 V2X-Related Policy Issues...... 392
7.89 W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) ........... 393
7.89.1 Automotive Working Group .............. 393
7.89.1.1 VISS (Vehicle Information Service Specification) ............. 393
7.89.1.2 RSI (Restful Service Interface) ...... 394
7.89.1.3 Previous Work ................. 394
7.89.2 Automotive & Web Platform Business Group ........... 394

8 Chapter 8: Future Roadmap & Value Chain .... 395
8.1 Future Roadmap .................. 395
8.1.1 Pre-2020: Early Commitments by Automakers & Other Stakeholders .......... 395
8.1.2 2020 – 2025: Mass-Market Adoption of V2X for Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency .... 396
8.1.3 2026 – 2030: Towards Connected Autonomous Driving & 5G-Based V2X Applications ........ 397
8.2 Value Chain .............. 398
8.2.1 V2X Hardware & Software Suppliers ............. 398
8.2.2 Automotive OEMs ................. 399
8.2.3 Aftermarket Manufacturers .............. 399
8.2.4 System Integrators ................ 399
8.2.5 Application Service Providers ............ 400
8.2.6 Communications Service Providers ............... 400
8.2.7 Road Users & Operators ....... 400
8.2.8 Other Ecosystem Players....... 400

9 Chapter 9: Key Ecosystem Players ...... 401
9.1 A1 Telekom Austria Group ............... 401
9.2 AASA/01LightCom ............... 402
9.3 ADI (Analog Devices Inc.) ................. 403
9.4 Airbiquity ................. 404
9.5 Airgain ......... 405
9.6 Alibaba Group .......... 406
9.7 Alps Alpine (Alps Electric/Alpine Electronics) .......... 407
9.8 Amphenol Corporation .................... 408
9.9 Anritsu Corporation ............. 409
9.10 Apple ........... 410
9.11 Applied Information............. 411
9.12 Aptiv (Delphi Automotive) ............... 412
9.13 Aricent/Altran .......... 413
9.14 ARM Holdings .......... 414
9.15 Arteris IP .................. 415
9.16 Aston Martin Lagonda ......... 416
9.17 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute) ................. 417
9.18 AT&T ............ 418
9.19 Athena Group .......... 419
9.20 Audi ............. 420
9.21 Autotalks.................. 421
9.22 Aventi Intelligent Communication ............... 422
9.23 BAIC Group/BJEV ................. 423
9.24 Baidu ............ 424
9.25 Battelle .................... 425
9.26 BCE (Bell Canada) ................. 426
9.27 BlackBerry/QNX Software Systems/Certicom .......... 427
9.28 BMW Group ............. 428
9.29 BMW Motorrad ................... 429
9.30 Boréal Bikes ............. 430
9.31 Brilliance Auto (Brilliance China Automotive Holdings) ....... 431
9.32 Broadcom ................ 432
9.33 Bureau Veritas/7Layers ................... 433
9.34 BYD .............. 434
9.35 CalAmp/LoJack......... 435
9.36 Carsmart (Beijing Carsmart Technology) ................. 436
9.37 CEST Co. (Center for Embedded Software Technology) ....... 437
9.38 CETECOM ................. 438
9.39 CEVA ............ 439
9.40 Changan Automobile ........... 440
9.41 Chemtronics............. 441
9.42 Chery ........... 442
9.43 China Mobile/CMIoT (China Mobile IoT) ................. 443
9.44 China Telecom ......... 444
9.45 China Transinfo .................... 445
9.46 China Unicom .......... 446
9.47 Chunghwa Telecom ............. 447
9.48 CiDi (Changsha Intelligent Driving Institute) ............ 448
9.49 Cisco Systems .......... 449
9.50 Clarion ......... 450
9.51 Cohda Wireless .................... 451
9.52 Commsignia ............. 452
9.53 Confidex ................... 453
9.54 Connected Signals ................ 454
9.55 Continental .............. 455
9.56 Cubic Corporation ................ 456
9.57 Cubic Telecom ......... 457
9.58 Cybercom Group .................. 458
9.59 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation ........... 459
9.60 Daimler .................... 460
9.61 Daimler Trucks ......... 462
9.62 Danlaw ......... 463
9.63 Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group/CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group) ........... 464
9.64 DEKRA .......... 465
9.65 Delphi Technologies ............. 466
9.66 Denso Corporation .............. 467
9.67 Derq ............. 468
9.68 Desay SV Automotive .......... 469
9.69 DFM (Dongfeng Motor Corporation) ........... 470
9.70 DT (Deutsche Telekom).................... 471
9.71 DT&C............ 472
9.72 Ducati Motor Holding .......... 473
9.73 Econolite .................. 474
9.74 EFKON .......... 475
9.75 Ericsson .................... 476
9.76 ESCRYPT/ETAS ......... 477
9.77 eSSys ............ 479
9.78 ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea) ............ 480
9.79 Faraday Future ......... 481
9.80 FAW Group .............. 482
9.81 FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles) ...... 483
9.82 Ferrari .......... 484
9.83 FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications) ...... 485
9.84 FEV Group ................ 486
9.85 Ficosa ........... 487
9.86 Firefly LiFi (Firefly Wireless Networks) ......... 488
9.87 Flex .............. 489
9.88 FLIR Systems ............ 490
9.89 Fluidmesh Networks ............ 491
9.90 Ford Motor Company .......... 492
9.91 Foresight Autonomous Holdings ...... 493
9.92 Forward Electronics ............. 494
9.93 Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems) ............... 495
9.94 Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute) ................ 496
9.95 Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits) ...... 497
9.96 Fraunhofer SIT (Institute for Secure Information Technology) ........ 498
9.97 Fujitsu .......... 499
9.98 GAC Group (Guangzhou Automobile Group) ........... 500
9.99 Geely Holding/Geely Auto ............... 501
9.100 Gemalto ................... 502
9.101 Genvict......... 503
9.102 GM (General Motors) .......... 504
9.103 Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company .............. 506
9.104 Gosuncn Technology Group ............. 507
9.105 Great Wall Motor Company ............. 508
9.106 Green Hills Software/ISS (INTEGRITY Security Services) ...... 509
9.107 Griiip ............ 511
9.108 Groupe PSA .............. 512
9.109 Groupe Renault ................... 513
9.110 HAAS Alert ............... 514
9.111 Hancom MDS ........... 515
9.112 Harada Industry ................... 516
9.113 Helix Technologies ............... 517
9.114 HELLA ........... 518
9.115 HERE Technologies .............. 519
9.116 Hino Motors ............. 520
9.117 Hitachi ......... 521
9.118 HKT/PCCW ............... 522
9.119 HNTB Corporation ............... 523
9.120 Honda Motor Corporation ............... 524
9.121 HORIBA MIRA .......... 525
9.122 HSAE/Hangsheng Technology .......... 526
9.123 Huali/iSmartWays Technology ......... 527
9.124 Huawei/HiSilicon ................. 528
9.125 Hyundai Mobis ......... 529
9.126 Hyundai Motor Group (Hyundai Motor Company/ Kia Motors Corporation) .......... 530
9.127 IAV ............... 531
9.128 IBM Corporation .................. 532
9.129 IDnomic ................... 533
9.130 Infineon Technologies .......... 534
9.131 INRIX ............ 535
9.132 Intel Corporation/Mobileye ............. 536
9.133 InterDigital ............... 538
9.134 Intertek .................... 539
9.135 Invengo .................... 540
9.136 Isuzu Motors ............ 541
9.137 Iteris ............. 542
9.138 ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan) ...... 543
9.139 iTRONICS .................. 544
9.140 ITT (IT Telecom) ................... 545
9.141 Iveco/CNH Industrial ............ 546
9.142 Jin Woo Industrial ................ 547
9.143 JLR (Jaguar Land Rover)/Tata Motors .......... 548
9.144 JRC (Japan Radio Company) ............. 549
9.145 Juniper Networks ................. 550
9.146 JVCKENWOOD Corporation ............. 551
9.147 Kapsch TrafficCom ............... 552
9.148 Karamba Security ................. 553
9.149 Kawasaki Heavy Industries ............... 554
9.150 KDDI Corporation ................. 555
9.151 Keysight Technologies ......... 556
9.152 KOSTAL Group (Leopold Kostal) ....... 557
9.153 KPN .............. 558
9.154 KT Corporation ......... 559
9.155 KTM ............. 560
9.156 Kymeta Corporation ............ 561
9.157 Kyocera Corporation ............ 562
9.158 LACROIX City/LACROIX Neavia ......... 563
9.159 Lear Corporation .................. 564
9.160 Leidos .......... 565
9.161 Lenovo/Motorola Mobility .............. 566
9.162 Leonardo.................. 567
9.163 Lesswire/Prettl Group .......... 568
9.164 LG Electronics/LG Innotek ................ 569
9.165 LITE-ON Technology Corporation................. 570
9.166 LMT (Latvijas Mobilais Telefons) ...... 571
9.167 Lucid Motors ............ 572
9.168 Luxoft/Objective Software/DXC Technology............ 573
9.169 Lyft ............... 574
9.170 Magna International ............ 575
9.171 Magneti Marelli ................... 576
9.172 Mando Corporation/Halla Group ................. 577
9.173 Marben .................... 578
9.174 Marvell......... 579
9.175 Mazda Motor Corporation ............... 580
9.176 McLaren Automotive ........... 581
9.177 Mediatek ................. 582
9.178 MET Labs (MET Laboratories)/Eurofins Scientific ................ 583
9.179 Michelin ................... 584
9.180 Microchip Technology/Microsemi Corporation ....... 585
9.181 Microsoft Corporation ......... 586
9.182 MinebeaMitsumi Group .................. 587
9.183 Mitsuba Corporation ........... 588
9.184 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation ....... 589
9.185 Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ....... 590
9.186 Mobile Mark ............ 591
9.187 Molex/Laird CVS (Connected Vehicle Solutions) ...... 592
9.188 Murata Manufacturing .................... 593
9.189 NavInfo .................... 594
9.190 Navistar ................... 595
9.191 Navya ........... 596
9.192 Nebula Link .............. 597
9.193 NEC Corporation .................. 598
9.194 Neology/SMARTRAC ............ 599
9.195 Neoway Technology ............ 600
9.196 Neusoft Reach ......... 601
9.197 NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden) ................. 602
9.198 Nexar ........... 603
9.199 Nexus Group ............ 604
9.200 NI (National Instruments) ................ 605
9.201 NIO............... 606
9.202 Nissan Motor Corporation ............... 607
9.203 NJR (New Japan Radio) .................... 608
9.204 Nokia ........... 609
9.205 Nordsys .................... 610
9.206 Noris Network.......... 611
9.207 NTT DoCoMo ........... 612
9.208 NXP Semiconductors............ 613
9.209 Oki Electric Industry ............. 614
9.210 Oledcomm ............... 615
9.211 OnBoard Security/Security Innovation ........ 616
9.212 OPPO ........... 617
9.213 Orange ......... 618
9.214 P3 Group .................. 619
9.215 PACCAR/DAF Trucks ............. 620
9.216 Panasonic Corporation .................... 621
9.217 Parsons Corporation ............ 622
9.218 Peloton Technology ............. 623
9.219 Penta Security Systems .................... 624
9.220 Phantom Auto.......... 625
9.221 Pioneer Corporation/ IPC (Increment P Corporation) .......... 626
9.222 Proximus Group ................... 627
9.223 Pulse Electronics .................. 628
9.224 pureLiFi .................... 629
9.225 Q-Free .......... 630
9.226 Qianxun SI (Spatial Intelligence) ...... 631
9.227 Qorvo ........... 632
9.228 Qosmotec Software Solutions ......... 633
9.229 Qualcomm ............... 634
9.230 Quectel Wireless Solutions .............. 635
9.231 RANIX ........... 636
9.232 Redpine Signals .................... 637
9.233 Renesas Electronics Corporation ................. 638
9.234 Robert Bosch ........... 639
9.235 Rohde & Schwarz ................. 640
9.236 ROHM Semiconductor ......... 641
9.237 RoyalTek .................. 642
9.238 S.E.A. Datentechnik ............. 643
9.239 SAIC Motor Corporation .................. 644
9.240 Saleen Automotive .............. 645
9.241 Samsung Electronics/HARMAN International .......... 646
9.242 Sanjole ......... 647
9.243 Sanyo Techno Solutions Tottori ....... 648
9.244 Savari ........... 649
9.245 SEAT ............. 650
9.246 Sensefields ............... 651
9.247 Sequans Communications................ 652
9.248 SGS ............... 653
9.249 Shanghai Gotell Communication Technology Holdings (roam2free) ........... 654
9.250 Siemens/Mentor/TASS International ........... 655
9.251 Sierra Wireless ......... 657
9.252 Sinclair Broadcast Group ................. 658
9.253 SiriusXM/Automatic Labs ................. 659
9.254 SK C&C ......... 660
9.255 SK Telecom .............. 661
9.256 Škoda Auto .............. 662
9.257 Skyworks Solutions .............. 663
9.258 Smart Mobile Labs ............... 664
9.259 Smarteq Wireless/Allgon ................. 665
9.260 Socionext ................. 666
9.261 SoftBank Group ................... 667
9.262 Spirent Communications ................. 668
9.263 SsangYong Motor Company/Mahindra & Mahindra............ 669
9.264 STAR Systems International ............. 670
9.265 STMicroelectronics .............. 671
9.266 sTraffic ......... 672
9.267 Subaru Corporation ............. 673
9.268 Sumitomo Electric Industries ........... 674
9.269 Sunsea AIoT/SIMCom Wireless Solutions/Longsung Technology ................ 675
9.270 Suzuki Motor Corporation ............... 676
9.271 Swarco/McCain .................... 677
9.272 Synopsys .................. 678
9.273 Taiwan Mobile ......... 679
9.274 Taoglas ......... 680
9.275 TAPCO (Traffic and Parking Control Company) ........ 681
9.276 Tata AutoComp Systems .................. 682
9.277 Tata Elxsi .................. 683
9.278 TE Connectivity/Hirschmann Car Communication ............... 684
9.279 Telefónica Group ................. 685
9.280 Telenor Group/Telenor Connexion .............. 686
9.281 Telit Communications .......... 687
9.282 Telstra .......... 688
9.283 Telus Corporation ................ 689
9.284 Tencent .................... 690
9.285 Terranet ................... 691
9.286 Tesla ............ 692
9.287 TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile) ............. 693
9.288 Tome Software .................... 694
9.289 TomTom .................. 695
9.290 Toshiba Corporation ............ 696
9.291 TowerJazz ................ 697
9.292 Toyota Motor Corporation .............. 698
9.293 TransCore ................ 699
9.294 TRATON/Scania/MAN .......... 700
9.295 Trek Bicycle Corporation .................. 701
9.296 TTS (Traffic Technology Services) ................. 702
9.297 TÜV Rheinland ......... 703
9.298 TÜV SÜD .................. 704
9.299 Uber Technologies ............... 705
9.300 U-Blox .......... 706
9.301 UL ................ 707
9.302 Unex Technology Corporation ......... 708
9.303 Unicore Communications/Beijing BDStar Navigation .......... 709
9.304 Unisoc .......... 710
9.305 Valens .......... 711
9.306 Valeo ............ 712
9.307 Vector Informatik ................ 713
9.308 Veniam .................... 714
9.309 Veoneer/Autoliv .................. 715
9.310 Verizon Communications/Verizon Connect ............. 716
9.311 Viavi Solutions ......... 717
9.312 Vinli .............. 718
9.313 Visteon Corporation ............ 719
9.314 VLNComm ................ 720
9.315 Vodafone Group .................. 721
9.316 Volkswagen Group ............... 722
9.317 Volvo Cars ................ 723
9.318 Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks ............... 724
9.319 VT iDirect ................. 725
9.320 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland ............... 726
9.321 Wanji Technology ................ 727
9.322 Waymo/Alphabet/Google ............... 728
9.323 Wayties .................... 729
9.324 Wieson Technologies ........... 730
9.325 WISeKey ................... 731
9.326 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)............ 732
9.327 WSP Global .............. 733
9.328 Xiaomi Corporation .............. 734
9.329 Xilinx ............ 735
9.330 Yamaha Motor Company ................. 736
9.331 YoGoKo .................... 737
9.332 Yokowo .................... 738
9.333 ZF ................. 739
9.334 Zotye Auto (Zotye Automobile International) .......... 740
9.335 ZTE ............... 741

10 Chapter 10: Market Sizing & Forecasts ........... 742
10.1 Global Outlook for V2X Communications Technology ......... 742
10.2 Segmentation by Submarket ........... 743
10.3 V2X Terminal Equipment ................. 743
10.3.1 V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue................ 743
10.3.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology ............... 744
10.3.2.1 C-V2X ................... 744
10.3.2.2 LTE-V2X................ 745
10.3.2.3 5G-NR V2X ........... 745
10.3.2.4 IEEE 802.11p .................... 746
10.3.2.5 IEEE 802.11p-2010 ........... 746
10.3.2.6 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV ......... 747
10.4 V2X OBUs ................. 747
10.4.1 V2X OBU Shipments & Revenue ....... 747
10.4.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology ............... 748
10.4.2.1 C-V2X ................... 749
10.4.2.2 LTE-V2X................ 750
10.4.2.3 5G-NR V2X ........... 751
10.4.2.4 IEEE 802.11p .................... 752
10.4.2.5 IEEE 802.11p-2010 ........... 753
10.4.2.6 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV ......... 754
10.5 V2X RSUs.................. 755
10.5.1 V2X RSU Shipments & Revenue ........ 755
10.5.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology ............... 756
10.5.2.1 C-V2X ................... 757
10.5.2.2 LTE-V2X................ 758
10.5.2.3 5G-NR V2X ........... 759
10.5.2.4 IEEE 802.11p .................... 760
10.5.2.5 IEEE 802.11p-2010 ........... 761
10.5.2.6 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV ......... 762
10.6 V2X Applications .................. 763
10.6.1 V2X Application Revenue ...... 763
10.6.2 Segmentation by Application Category ......... 764
10.6.2.1 Road Safety.......... 765
10.6.2.2 Traffic Management & Optimization ....... 765
10.6.2.3 Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information........... 766
10.6.2.4 Transit & Public Transport ........... 766
10.6.2.5 Commercial Vehicle Operations .............. 767
10.6.2.6 Emergency Services & Public Safety ........ 767
10.6.2.7 Environmental Sustainability ....... 768
10.6.2.8 Road Weather Management ....... 768
10.6.2.9 Autonomous Driving & Advanced Application................. 769
10.6.2.10 Value-Added Services ...... 769
10.7 V2X Backend Network Elements ...... 770
10.7.1 V2X Backend Network Element Revenue ...... 770
10.8 V2X Security ............. 770
10.8.1 V2X Security Revenue ........... 770
10.9 Global Installed Base of V2X-Equipped Vehicles & RSUs ................. 771
10.9.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles ......... 771
10.9.1.1 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology .......... 771
10.9.1.2 C-V2X ................... 772
10.9.1.3 LTE-V2X................ 772
10.9.1.4 5G NR-V2X ........... 773
10.9.1.5 IEEE 802.11p .................... 773
10.9.1.6 IEEE 802.11p-2010 ........... 774
10.9.1.7 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV ......... 774
10.9.2 V2X RSUs ................... 775
10.9.2.1 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology .......... 775
10.9.2.2 C-V2X ................... 776
10.9.2.3 LTE-V2X................ 776
10.9.2.4 5G-NR V2X ........... 777
10.9.2.5 IEEE 802.11p .................... 777
10.9.2.6 IEEE 802.11p-2010 ........... 778
10.9.2.7 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV ......... 778
10.10 Regional Outlook ................. 779
10.10.1 Submarkets ............... 779
10.10.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment ............. 779
10.10.1.2 V2X OBUs............. 780
10.10.1.3 V2X RSUs ............. 781
10.10.1.4 V2X Applications .............. 782
10.10.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements ............. 782
10.10.1.6 V2X Security......... 783
10.10.2 Installed Base ............ 783
10.10.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles ................ 783
10.10.2.2 V2X RSUs ............. 784
10.11 North America ......... 785
10.11.1 Submarkets ............... 785
10.11.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment ............. 785
10.11.1.2 V2X OBUs............. 786
10.11.1.3 V2X RSUs ............. 787
10.11.1.4 V2X Applications .............. 788
10.11.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements ............. 788
10.11.1.6 V2X Security......... 789
10.11.2 Installed Base ............ 789
10.11.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles ................ 789
10.11.2.2 V2X RSUs ............. 790
10.12 Asia Pacific ............... 791
10.12.1 Submarkets ............... 791
10.12.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment ............. 791
10.12.1.2 V2X OBUs............. 792
10.12.1.3 V2X RSUs ............. 793
10.12.1.4 V2X Applications .............. 794
10.12.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements ............. 794
10.12.1.6 V2X Security......... 795
10.12.2 Installed Base ............ 795
10.12.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles ................ 795
10.12.2.2 V2X RSUs ............. 796
10.13 Europe ......... 797
10.13.1 Submarkets ............... 797
10.13.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment ............. 797
10.13.1.2 V2X OBUs............. 798
10.13.1.3 V2X RSUs ............. 799
10.13.1.4 V2X Applications .............. 800
10.13.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements ............. 800
10.13.1.6 V2X Security......... 801
10.13.2 Installed Base ............ 801
10.13.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles ................ 801
10.13.2.2 V2X RSUs ............. 802
10.14 Middle East & Africa ............ 803
10.14.1 Submarkets ............... 803
10.14.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment ............. 803
10.14.1.2 V2X OBUs............. 804
10.14.1.3 V2X RSUs ............. 805
10.14.1.4 V2X Applications .............. 806
10.14.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements ............. 806
10.14.1.6 V2X Security......... 807
10.14.2 Installed Base ............ 807
10.14.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles ................ 807
10.14.2.2 V2X RSUs ............. 808
10.15 Latin & Central America ................... 809
10.15.1 Submarkets ............... 809
10.15.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment ............. 809
10.15.1.2 V2X OBUs............. 810
10.15.1.3 V2X RSUs ............. 811
10.15.1.4 V2X Applications .............. 812
10.15.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements ............. 812
10.15.1.6 V2X Security......... 813
10.15.2 Installed Base ............ 813
10.15.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles ................ 813
10.15.2.2 V2X RSUs ............. 814

11 Chapter 11: Conclusion & Strategic Recommendations .......... 815
11.1 Why is the Market Poised to Grow? ............ 815
11.2 Geographic Outlook: Which Countries Offer the Highest Growth Potential? .......... 816
11.3 Review of V2X Engagements Worldwide ................. 816
11.3.1 North America .......... 816
11.3.1.1 United States ................... 816
11.3.1.2 Canada ................. 817
11.3.2 Asia Pacific ................ 817
11.3.2.1 Japan ................... 817
11.3.2.2 China ................... 818
11.3.2.3 Rest of Asia Pacific ........... 818
11.3.3 Europe .......... 818
11.3.4 Middle East & Africa ............. 819
11.3.5 Latin & Central America ........ 819
11.4 Spectrum: Are There Any Feasible Choices Beyond 5.9 GHz? .......... 819
11.5 Evaluating the Practical Benefits of V2X ...... 820
11.6 The IEEE 802.11p/DSRC vs. C-V2X Debate: Which Technology will Succeed? .......... 820
11.6.1 The Emergence of Two Opposing V2X Technology Camps................ 820
11.6.2 Is There a Clear Winner? ....... 821
11.6.3 Flexible Approach: Different Technologies in Different Regions ....... 821
11.7 IEEE 802.11bd: Is There a Future Evolution Path for 802.11p? ........ 822
11.8 Can C-V2X Minimize the Cost of Roadside Infrastructure Build-Outs? ........ 822
11.9 Which Applications Are Currently Supported by V2X-Equipped Production Vehicles? ........ 823
11.10 Growing Focus on Motorcycle-Specific V2X Safety Applications ................. 823
11.11 Use of V2V Communications to Support Truck Platooning Systems ............ 824
11.12 Delivering V2X-Type Applications Through Wide-Area Cellular Connectivity .......... 824
11.13 How Can V2X Facilitate Fully Autonomous Driving? ............ 825
11.14 Addressing V2X Security Concerns............... 825
11.15 Strategic Recommendations ............ 826
11.15.1 Automotive OEMs ................. 826
11.15.2 V2X Technology & Solution Providers ........... 827
11.15.3 Mobile Operators & Cellular Industry Specialists ...... 827
11.15.4 Road Operators & Other Stakeholders......... 828

12 Chapter 12: Expert Opinion – Interview Transcripts ... 830
12.1 Cohda Wireless .................... 830
12.2 Foresight Autonomous Holdings ...... 833
12.3 Kapsch TrafficCom ............... 838
12.4 Nokia ........... 846
12.5 NXP Semiconductors............ 849
12.6 OnBoard Security ................. 857
12.7 Qualcomm ............... 860
12.8 Savari ........... 864


List of Figures

Figure 1: The V2X Communications Concept ........... 63
Figure 2: DSRC-Based V2X Architecture .................. 76
Figure 3: C-V2X Architecture ........... 79
Figure 4: Levels of Driving Automation for On-Road Vehicles ......... 87
Figure 5: Technical & Performance Characteristics of V2X Technologies ................ 99
Figure 6: PC5 & LTE/NR-Uu Interfaces for C-V2X ............... 102
Figure 7: Examples of VLC (Visible Light Communications)-Based V2X Application Scenarios ...... 104
Figure 8: Conceptual Architecture for End-to-End Network Slicing in Mobile Networks ............... 112
Figure 9: Autonomous Vehicle Generated Data Volume by Sensor (%) ................ 172
Figure 10: Key Elements of the AURORA Connected Vehicle Test Bed ...... 178
Figure 11: CDOT (Colorado Department of Transport)-Panasonic V2X Deployment Program ...... 183
Figure 12: Daimler's Car-to-X Communication System ...... 188
Figure 13: HKT's C-V2X Trial Network Architecture ........... 202
Figure 14: Key Elements of NTT DoCoMo's C-V2X Trial ................. 216
Figure 15: V2V Applications Supported by Toyota's ITS Connect System in Japan ............ 224
Figure 16: V2I Applications Supported by Toyota's ITS Connect System in Japan ............. 225
Figure 17: TRATON's IEEE 802.11p-Based Truck Platooning System ......... 240
Figure 18: C-V2X Evolution in 3GPP Releases 14, 15 & 16 ............. 271
Figure 19: CEPT Frequency Arrangement for V2X Communications.......... 297
Figure 20: ARC-IT/U.S. National ITS Reference Architecture Structure & Organization ................. 388
Figure 21: Future Roadmap for V2X Communications: 2019 – 2030 ........ 395
Figure 22: V2X Communications Technology Value Chain ............. 398
Figure 23: Global V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ................ 742
Figure 24: Global V2X Communications Technology Revenue by Submarket: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ..... 743
Figure 25: Global V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ................. 743
Figure 26: Global V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ......... 744
Figure 27: Global C-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 744
Figure 28: Global LTE-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)........... 745
Figure 29: Global 5G NR-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) ...... 745
Figure 30: Global IEEE 802.11p Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............... 746
Figure 31: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ...... 746
Figure 32: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) .... 747
Figure 33: Global V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........... 747
Figure 34: Global V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 748
Figure 35: Global V2X OBU Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) .............. 748
Figure 36: Global V2X OBU Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ...... 749
Figure 37: Global C-V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........ 749
Figure 38: Global C-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ........... 750
Figure 39: Global LTE-V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ................ 750
Figure 40: Global LTE-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ........ 751
Figure 41: Global 5G NR-V2X OBU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............ 751
Figure 42: Global 5G NR-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) ............... 752
Figure 43: Global IEEE 802.11p OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........ 752
Figure 44: Global IEEE 802.11p OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 753
Figure 45: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........... 753
Figure 46: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............... 754
Figure 47: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV OBU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) .......... 754
Figure 48: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV OBU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) ............. 755
Figure 49: Global V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............ 755
Figure 50: Global V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............... 756
Figure 51: Global V2X RSU Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ... 756
Figure 52: Global V2X RSU Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ...... 757
Figure 53: Global C-V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........ 757
Figure 54: Global C-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 758
Figure 55: Global LTE-V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ................. 758
Figure 56: Global LTE-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ........ 759
Figure 57: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............ 759
Figure 58: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) ................ 760
Figure 59: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ......... 760
Figure 60: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............. 761
Figure 61: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............ 761
Figure 62: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)................ 762
Figure 63: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)........... 762
Figure 64: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 763
Figure 65: Global V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ........ 763
Figure 66: Global V2X Application Revenue by Category: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 764
Figure 67: Global V2X-Based Road Safety Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............. 765
Figure 68: Global V2X-Based Traffic Management & Optimization Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .......... 765
Figure 69: Global V2X-Based Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 766
Figure 70: Global V2X-Based Transit & Public Transport Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 766
Figure 71: Global V2X-Based Commercial Vehicle Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 767
Figure 72: Global V2X-Based Emergency Services & Public Safety Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 767
Figure 73: Global V2X-Based Environmental Sustainability Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .......... 768
Figure 74: Global V2X-Based Road Weather Management Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ........... 768
Figure 75: Global V2X-Based Autonomous Driving & Advanced Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ... 769
Figure 76: Global V2X-Based Value-Added Services Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ......... 769
Figure 77: Global V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ....... 770
Figure 78: Global V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............. 770
Figure 79: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ......... 771
Figure 80: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............ 771
Figure 81: Global C-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ...... 772
Figure 82: Global LTE-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) .............. 772
Figure 83: Global 5G NR-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) .......... 773
Figure 84: Global IEEE 802.11p-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ....... 773
Figure 85: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units).......... 774
Figure 86: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........ 774
Figure 87: Global V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ....... 775
Figure 88: Global V2X RSU Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) .......... 775
Figure 89: Global C-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............... 776
Figure 90: Global LTE-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............ 776
Figure 91: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ....... 777
Figure 92: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ................ 777
Figure 93: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ....... 778
Figure 94: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ..... 778
Figure 95: V2X Communications Technology Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .......... 779
Figure 96: V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 779
Figure 97: V2X OBU Shipments by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)...... 780
Figure 98: V2X OBU Shipment Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ......... 780
Figure 99: V2X RSU Shipments by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ...... 781
Figure 100: V2X RSU Shipment Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ........ 781
Figure 101: V2X Application Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 782
Figure 102: V2X Backend Network Element Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 782
Figure 103: V2X Security Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ................. 783
Figure 104: V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) .............. 783
Figure 105: V2X RSU Installed Base by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........... 784
Figure 106: North America V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)............. 785
Figure 107: North America V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 785
Figure 108: North America V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........ 786
Figure 109: North America V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ........... 786
Figure 110: North America V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ......... 787
Figure 111: North America V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 787
Figure 112: North America V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)................. 788
Figure 113: North America V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .... 788
Figure 114: North America V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .......... 789
Figure 115: North America V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ...... 789
Figure 116: North America V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............... 790
Figure 117: Asia Pacific V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ...... 791
Figure 118: Asia Pacific V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ........ 791
Figure 119: Asia Pacific V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units).............. 792
Figure 120: Asia Pacific V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ................. 792
Figure 121: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) .............. 793
Figure 122: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ...... 793
Figure 123: Asia Pacific V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .......... 794
Figure 124: Asia Pacific V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .......... 794
Figure 125: Asia Pacific V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............... 795
Figure 126: Asia Pacific V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............ 795
Figure 127: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ......... 796
Figure 128: Europe V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 797
Figure 129: Europe V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 797
Figure 130: Europe V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........ 798
Figure 131: Europe V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ........... 798
Figure 132: Europe V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)......... 799
Figure 133: Europe V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 799
Figure 134: Europe V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ................ 800
Figure 135: Europe V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ................ 800
Figure 136: Europe V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .......... 801
Figure 137: Europe V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ...... 801
Figure 138: Europe V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............... 802
Figure 139: Middle East & Africa V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ... 803
Figure 140: Middle East & Africa V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ..... 803
Figure 141: Middle East & Africa V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........... 804
Figure 142: Middle East & Africa V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 804
Figure 143: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ........... 805
Figure 144: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............... 805
Figure 145: Middle East & Africa V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ....... 806
Figure 146: Middle East & Africa V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ....... 806
Figure 147: Middle East & Africa V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............. 807
Figure 148: Middle East & Africa V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ......... 807
Figure 149: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ...... 808
Figure 150: Latin & Central America V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .......... 809
Figure 151: Latin & Central America V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ............ 809
Figure 152: Latin & Central America V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ..... 810
Figure 153: Latin & Central America V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ......... 810
Figure 154: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ...... 811
Figure 155: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ......... 811
Figure 156: Latin & Central America V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 812
Figure 157: Latin & Central America V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) .............. 812
Figure 158: Latin & Central America V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) ....... 813
Figure 159: Latin & Central America V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units).... 813
Figure 160: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) ............. 814
Figure 161: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2022 (Thousands of Units) .......... 815
 

 

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V2X communications technology will be a $1.2 Billion opportunity by 2022, says SNS Telecom & IT

DUBAI, UAE. 25th March 2019

SNS Telecom & IT's latest research report indicates that global spending on V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) communications technology – based on both  IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X (Cellular V2X) standards – will reach $1.2 Billion annually by the end of 2022.

Commonly referred to as V2X, vehicle-to-everything communications technology allows vehicles to directly communicate with each other, roadside infrastructure, and other road users to deliver an array of benefits in the form of road safety, traffic efficiency, smart mobility, environmental sustainability, and driver convenience. In addition, V2X is also helping pave the way for fully autonomous driving through its unique non line-of-sight sensing capability which allows vehicles to detect potential hazards, traffic, and road conditions from longer distances and sooner than other in-vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar, and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging).

Although legacy V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) technologies are currently in operational use worldwide for ETC (Electronic Toll Collection) and relatively simple V2I applications, advanced V2X systems – capable of supporting V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle), V2I and other forms of V2X communications – are beginning to gain broad commercial acceptance with two competing technologies vying for the attention of automakers and regulators:  the commercially mature IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) standard, and the relatively new 3GPP-defined C-V2X (Cellular V2X) technology which has a forward evolutionary path towards 5G.

With an initial focus on road safety and traffic efficiency applications, Toyota and GM (General Motors) have already equipped some of their vehicle models with IEEE 802.11p-based V2X technology in Japan and North America.  Among other commercial commitments, Volkswagen will begin deploying IEEE 802.11p on volume models in Europe starting from 2019, while Geely and Ford plan to integrate C-V2X in their new vehicles by 2021 and 2022 respectively. It is also worth nothing that a number of luxury automakers – including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen's subsidiary Audi, and Volvo Cars – already deliver certain V2X-type applications through wide-area cellular connectivity and supporting infrastructure such as appropriately equipped roadwork trailers.

Despite the ongoing 802.11p/DSRC versus C-V2X debate, regulatory uncertainty and other challenges, global spending on V2X communications technology is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 170% between 2019 and 2022. SNS Telecom & IT predicts that by the end of 2022,  V2X will account for a market worth $1.2 Billion, with an installed base of nearly 6 Million V2X-equipped vehicles worldwide.

The “V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the V2X ecosystem including market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, application scenarios, use cases, business models, key trends, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, V2X deployment case studies, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents market size forecasts from 2019 till 2030. The forecasts cover four submarkets, two air interface technologies,  10 application categories and five regions.

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