導電性インク市場の予測、技術、企業 2019-2029年:銀薄片、銀ナノ粒子、銅インクとペースト、グラフェンとその他

Conductive Ink Markets 2019-2029: Forecasts, Technologies, Players

Silver flake, silver nanoparticles, copper inks and pastes, graphene and beyond


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主な掲載内容  ※目次より抜粋

  1. エグゼクティブサマリー
  2. 導電性インクとペースト
  3. PTFタイプと発火ペーストタイプの効率
  4. 銀ナノ粒子の生産過程
  5. 粒子フリーの導電性インクとペースト
  6. 銅インクとペースト
  7. 太陽光発電市場での導電性ペースト
  8. 自動車
  9. タッチパネル電極端
  10. RFIDの導電性インク
  11. 曲面での3Dアンテナとコンフォーマル印刷
  12. 熱成形型、インモールドエレクトロニクス
  13. 電子テキスタイル向け伸張性インク
  14. フレキシブル/伸張性回路基板向け導電伸張性インク
  15. 高温焼結導電性ダイアタッチペースト
  16. 導電性インクを使ったEMIシールド
  17. プリンテッド回路基板の製造とプロトタイピング
  18. フレキシブルハイブリッドエレクトロニクス
  19. ITO(透明導電膜)置換(透明導電性フィルム)
  21. 携帯電話デジタイザ - 初の電子ナノ粒子インクの高容量市場?
  22. 有機EL照明(OLEDライト)市場
  23. プリンテッド/フレキシブルセンサ
  24. 3Dプリンテッドエレクトロニクス
  25. 広範囲LEDライトアレイ
  26. 導電性ペン
  27. 携帯電話デジタイザ
  28. プリンテッド薄膜トランジスタ
  29. プリンテッドメモリ
  30. フレキシブルPCB市場向けのCUペースト
  31. MLCC市場におけるCU粉の観察、考察、予想と予測
  32. 導電性インクを使ったメタマテリアルと工学構造
  33. E-Readers
  34. その他の新用途アイディア
  35. 53企業へのインタビュー


This report provides the most comprehensive and authoritative view of the conductive inks and paste market, giving detailed ten-year market forecasts segmented by application and material type. The market forecasts are given in tonnage and value at the ink level.
It includes critical reviews of all the competing conductive inks and paste technologies including firing-type pastes, sintering pastes, PTFs, laser-cut or photo-patterned pastes, nanoparticles, stretchable inks, in-mould inks, copper, copper/silver alloys, nanocarbons, and more. Here, we outline the latest performance levels/progress, technology challenges, key suppliers, existing and emerging target market, and forecasts where appropriate.
It also provides a detailed assessment of more than 27 application sectors. Here, we analyse the market needs/requirements, discuss the business dynamics, market leadership and technology change trends, competing solutions, latest product/prototype launches, key players and market forecasts in tonnes and value.
The markets covered include photovoltaics, power electronics, EMI shielding, in-mould electronics (automotive, home appliance, etc.), electronic textile and wearable electronics, 3D antennas and conformal printing, flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), touch screen edge electrodes, automotive (defoggers, seat occupancy sensors, seat heaters, etc.), 3D printed electronics, multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC), ITO replacement (hybrid, direct printing, etc), printed piezoresistive, capacitive and bio sensors, PCB (DIY/hobbyist, professional, seed-and-plate), RFID (HF, UHF), printed TFT and memory, OLED and large-area LED lighting, flexible e-readers and reflective displays, large-area heaters (battery, plant, seat, etc.), conductive pens, digitizers and more.
In the report we also cover more than 130 companies. For most, we provide insights based on primary intelligence obtained through interviews, visits, conference exhibition interactions, personal communications, and so on. For more than 50 we provide full interview-based company profiles including a detailed SWOT analysis and IDTechEx Index. These provide valuable insight on company positioning, strategy, opportunities, and challenges.
Unrivalled market intelligence and insight
This report is based upon years of research. In the past five years alone, our analysts have interviewed more than 120 industry players, visited numerous users/ suppliers across the world, attended more than 25 relevant conferences/exhibitions globally, and worked with many industry players to help them with their strategy towards this market. For example, in the last four years alone we visited around 35 tradeshows in Japan, USA, Taiwan, Korea, Germany, UK and so on to update our report. Prior to this, our analysts played an active role in commercializing conductive pastes, particularly in the photovoltaic industry.
In parallel to this, IDTechEx has organised the leading global conferences and tradeshows on printed electronics for the past decade in Asia, Europe and USA. These shows bring together the entire value chain on printed electronics, including all the conductive ink suppliers, printers, and end users. This has given us unrivalled access to the players and the latest market intelligence.
Market overview (2019)
Photovoltaics (PV): This industry had dramatically grown in 2016 and 2017, showing very high double-digit growth rates. The growth has now slowed, especially as demand in China, which had been brought forward by the expected FiT reduction, fell. However, the growth is still positive and healthy.
The change in growth rate is accompanied with a change in market character. In the boom years suppliers of pastes were struggling to keep up with them. Now that the overall market is expanding at a slower pace we are back to the usual business condition of spirited fight over existing market share.
In 2018, the 100GW/year barrier was breached. Therefore, the market is irreplaceably significant for paste and powder markers. The risk of overreliance therefore is high. The industry also remains concerned that slow annual growth rates might translate into peak silver consumptions if the trend to decrease silver content per wafer continues without plateau. The competitive pressures on downward price remains strong squeezing margins. The technology innovations also often remain of an incremental nature, bringing up short-lived market advantages.
The industry has long been in search of the next big thing, hoping to create one or a combination of markets that can rival the size of the photovoltaic market. As a result, companies have sought to seed and create a diverse array of new markets, each exploiting a different feature of the wonderfully adaptive conductive ink technology, e.g., forming and stretching, sintering, conformal coating, fine feature printing, and so on. The new market creation process has now resulted in a diverse portfolio of applications. Our report analyses all these emerging markets in detail.
In-mould electronics (IME): After years of development, the production learning curve is still challenging, and the concept-to-mass production flow is not yet routine and well-established. Despite this, a wave of products is hitting the market. Recent examples are curved defrosters for automotive LED lighting, wearable patches, etc. Many more are in the pipeline especially in the automotive sector. Our assessment is that market is not far of its inflection point (estimated as 2021-2022). Indeed, at IME-enabled product level, we estimate that the market will exceed $240M by 2024/5. This translates into opportunities for paste markets. Some suppliers have engaged strongly with this trend, putting themselves in leading positions in terms of customer relationships and feedback, product qualification advances, and product performance and customization ability. There is still however room for innovation in particular focusing on higher formability, easier and kinder curing, and better match with all the other stack materials.
Power Electronics: New power semiconductor technologies such as SiC and GaN are enabling smaller and more integrated devices capable of handling higher power density levels. With these the bottleneck against higher temperature operation is not the semiconductor device but the packaging material.
A critical packaging material is the die (and to a less extend substrate) attach. The push towards higher temperatures has, in some cases, already pushed solder, the incumbent, to or beyond its performance limit, creating the need for an alternative.
Sintered metal pastes have emerged as a compelling proposition. They increase the thermal conductivity and the melting temperature, allowing devices to reliability operate at higher temperatures. This technology is already in commercial use after some seven years of development and its markets are poised to rapidly expand. The number of paste makers offering some type of sintering solution is rapidly increasing.
The development targets are to achieve rapid low (or zero) pressure sintering of ever larger surface areas and to narrow the significant price differential versus SAC solder. Ag is dominant but promising Cu alternatives have also emerged with friendlier sintering conditions. Various morphologies are emerging to reduce and later eliminate pressure sintering without scarifying curing time. New product form factor beyond just screen or stencil printing are emerging, making this technology more of a drop-in replacement. Machines makers are now offering turn-key solutions, integrating the pick-and-place, the drying, the pressure sintering units.
The market for sintering power in power electronics will grow. Interestingly, sintered paste will find new opportunities outside power electronics. Candidates include high-power RF amplifiers, high-power LEDs, and so on.
EMI Shielding: Spray-on inks are targeting package-level EMI shielding. Here, they hope to displace sputtering, the incumbent, which benefits from sunk CapEx. They offer low-capex production in atmospheric conditions and better conformal coverage. Jetted inks are also being proposed for in-package EMI isolation between individual dies in a multi-die package especially for high-frequency devices.
Some suppliers propose micron-sized, prioritising cost and maturity. Flat flakes offer higher conductivity if aligned well. Others develop nano or even particle-free inks, offering to offer the thinnest solution with the best adhesion and shielding properties. Most offer a hybrid solution, siting somewhere between full nano to full micro and full spherical to full flake type. Others are going further, taking steps to make it as easy as possible to adopt the product. Some position as possible full solution providers, integrating their inks with curing units to minimise customers' learning curve and adoption barriers. Some go even further proposition mechanisms to fine-tune layer thickness post-deposition to locally boost performance in EMI hotspots.
Flexible Hybrid Electronics (FHE): This is becoming a viable and achievable proposition (a) because ultrathin and flexible packaged complex ICs with high I/O pin count are becoming available, and (b) because ultralow temperature solder compatible with low-temperature substrates are being introduced. This trend will require fine-feature printing to metallize the circuit pattern on the flexible substrate whilst maintaining compatibility with the I/O pin spacing of complex IC packages. Fine printed Ag bumps may also be used in low-T die attach.
Other conformal printing: There is a significant installed base of production already, demonstrating that the technology could be commercialized in the face of entrenched incumbents such MIDs. It took years to develop appropriate low-temperature inks (120C) with good adhesion and conductivity. This trend continues as new inks emerge, offering even lower temperature curing, making more substrate materials compatible with aerosol metallization.
Stretchable e-textile conductive inks: Stretchable conductive inks have been in the commercialization mode, mainly technology push, for multiple years now. The number of suppliers has increased over the past years and the first products have already landed in the market. The value chain is in much better shape today. The market however remains diverse and fragmented, and silver consumption per item sold low. As such, the emphasis is now on strategic market segmentation and development to build and sustain a product pipeline. Technology wise, this is supported by the ability to customize inks performance on a use-case basis. In their marketing process, companies are also exploring opportunities beyond consumer products, focusing on safety clothing, automotive applications, and so on.
Touch screen edge electronics: In recent years this market has been shaped by the perennial trend to narrow the bezel which had resulted in hybrid approaches (photo-patterned and laser-cut pastes) to achieving narrow linewidths. This market will remain highly cost competitive, pushing suppliers towards aggressively low price points to keep market shares and to fight off sputtering.
Touch screens: Directly printed metal mesh has recently accelerated its technological progress, demonstrating even <1um lines. Despite this, there is some way to go before it becomes a leading market in this crowded field. In the meantime, hybrid solutions (emboss then fill with paste/ink) will continue their stop-start commercial progress various applications whilst manufacturers contemplate whether to invest in large format machines or not.
Automotive Electronics: Suppliers already sell pastes into window demisters, occupancy sensors, seat heaters, airbag deployers, and so on. Market is now expanding to include touch screens, In-Mold Electronics, transparent heaters, die attach materials, and others. This makes engagement with automotive OEMs/value chain a high priority strategic imperative.
Furthermore, as the electronic content per vehicle goes up, the demand of LTCC substrates with fired conductive pastes expands. This trend will also push up the demand more multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC), which in some cases translates into demand for Cu (and Ni) powders. The autonomous sensor industry may also create demand in the laser packaging (e.g., high-T die attach).
PCB Printing: The installed base of desktop versions has expanded but utilization -thus material consumption - is low. The sales of final (vs beta) version of professional multilayer printers has also started. Professional desktop PCB printers are still in an early phase of market diffusion and are positioned an as internal R&D and prototyping tool. Print-seed-and-then-plate approach in the PCB industry is also largely on hold due to the lack of a clear cost or performance benefit compared to incumbent processes. However, Cu inks printed PI substrates are actively being pushed for the FPCB applications. This approach may offer a cost advantage when surface coverage is low (<20%).
Printed large-area piezoresistive, capacitive and biosensors are set to become one of the largest constituents of the greater printed electronics industry. Here, inks will be used as printed bus bars and interconnects. Despite technology improvements, printed transistor and memory will remain in search of applications. Special formulations for printed backplane interconnects on flexible e-readers and flexible displays will see small boom in the short- to medium-term particularly as e-readers transition towards large-area (wall-sized) and more flexible backplanes. Large-area LED arrays made with printing will slowly find their way into the market, but will remain a niche proposition. 3D printed electronics (3DPE) remains an innovation opportunity front for low-temperature inks compatible with a variety of substrates, although progress has been slow in offering dedicated 3DPE printers capable of metallization intra-layers and of providing a design-to-print turnkey solution to customers. There are numerous other applications which we consider in our report. Examples include heating, battery pack and plant heaters, frequency-selective windows, and many more.
Interestingly non-traditional technologies are also making an impact. Cu is also making progress. Here, several start-ups have demonstrated stable Cu inks that cure at low temperatures. However, they still need to demonstrate production beyond lab scale to overcome Cu's general credibility gap. In particle-free inks suppliers are more actively helping users overcome the learning curve. These inks may have a good match in on-textile printing, amongst others. Silver nanoparticle inks are finally, after many years of development, finding major commercial success. Their prospects look much brighter. That is why we have a dedicated chapter on silver nanoparticle in this version of the report.



Table of Contents

1.1. Conductive inks and paste: everything is changing and the rising tide of PV
1.1. Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by 24 application areas
1.2. Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
1.2. Traditional Markets
1.2.1. Photovoltaics
1.2.2. Touch screen market
1.2.3. Automotive
1.2.4. Sensors
1.3. RFID
1.3. Ten-year market forecasts in tonnes for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV included.
1.4. Ten-year market forecasts in tonnes for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
1.4. Emerging applications
1.4.1. 3D antennas
1.4.2. ITO replacement
1.4.3. Stretchable inks
1.4.4. Desktop PCB printing
1.4.5. 3D Printed Electronics
1.5. Ten-year market forecast for micron-sized (non nano) conductive inks and pastes split by application
1.6. Ten-year market forecasts for silver nanoparticle conductive inks and pastes split by application
1.7. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in touch screens
1.8. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in the automotive sector as de-foggers, seat heaters and occupancy sensors.
1.9. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes as piezoresistive sensors in value and tonnes
1.10. Conductive inks and pastes used in capacitive (non-transparent) touch in value and tonnes
1.11. Conductive inks and pastes used in glucose test strips in value and tonne (carbon excluded)
1.12. Conductive inks and pastes used in printing UHF RFID antennas in value and tonne
1.13. Conductive inks and pastes used in printing HF RFID antennas in value and tonnes
1.14. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in 3D antennas
1.15. Ten-year market forecasts for IME conductive inks and pastes in the automotive sector
1.16. Ten-year market forecasts for IME conductive inks and pastes in white good appliances
1.17. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in ITO replacement
1.18. Ten-year market forecasts for stretchable conductive inks and pastes in e-textiles
1.19. Market for conductive inks in desktop and professional PCB printing
1.20. Ten-year market forecasts for stretchable conductive inks and pastes in 3D printed electronics.
2.1. PTF vs Firing Paste
2.1. Different morphologies of micron-sized silver particulates used in conductive paste/ink making
2.2. The process flow for making a conductive pastes.
3.1. These tables show the performance and processing conditions of screen-printable silver pastes.
3.1. These charts show the curing behaviour of PTFTs using a box oven and UV heater.
3.2. These charts show a typical firing profile for firing-type conductive pastes
3.2. Table listing the key suppliers of metallic powders/flakes and conductive inks/paste.
3.2. Curing and sintering
3.3. Value chain
3.3. Performance and typical characteristics of various silver nanoparticle inks on the market.
3.3. Typical equipment used in curing silver PTFs
3.4. A roll-to-roll photosintering machine by Novacentrix
3.4. List of silver nanoparticle suppliers.
3.4. Silver nanoparticle inks
3.5. Silver nanoparticle inks are more conducting
3.5. A Xenon photosetting machine as well as its lamp
3.6. SEM images of flake and spherical Ag pastes after heat and photo curing.
3.6. Curing temperature and profile of silver nanoparticle inks
3.6.1. Enhanced Flexibility
3.6.2. Inkjet Printability
3.7. Price competiveness of silver nanoparticles
3.7. Images comparing the packing of flake-based and nanoparticle-based conductive lines.
3.8. Conductivity values of different sputtered and printed conductive materials.
3.8. Performance of silver nanoparticle
3.9. Value chain
3.9. This measured data shows that silver nanoparticle inks can form lines that are both thinner and more conducting.
3.10. Melting temperature as a function of gold particle size
3.11. Current and projected roadmap for the curing temperature and resistivity level of silver nanoparticle inks.
3.12. Data showing the thermal curing behaviour of silver nanoparticle inks. It is observed that silver nanoparticle inks require curing temperatures comparable to PTF pastes.
6.1. Methods of preventing copper oxidisation
6.1. List of companies supplying or researching copper or silver alloy powders, inks or pastes.
6.1. Spot price of silver as a function of year
6.1.1. Superheated steam
6.1.2. Reactive agent metallization
6.1.3. Photocuring and photosintering
6.2. Air curable copper pastes
6.2. The performance and key characteristics of copper inks and pastes offered by different companies
6.2. The annealing method is a key step in creating conductive tracks from copper.
6.3. Apparatus and process for curing printed copper lines using Toyobo's superheated steam.
6.3. Emerging copper paste and ink suppliers
6.4. Pricing strategy and performance of copper inks and pastes
6.4. Creative copper conductive traces using reactive agent metallization
6.5. Various photosintering machines
6.5. Copper oxide nanoparticles
6.6. Silver-Coated Copper
6.6. Comparing an ideal silver-coated copper vs the ones typically produced.
7.1. Background to the PV industry
7.1. Left: price history of silicon PV cells. Right: price levels and production volumes of crystalline silicon PV. The price levels are now around 30 cents per watt or less.
7.2. Price learning curve of c-Si and thin film PV technologies
7.2. The return of the boom and bust to the PV sector?
7.3. Massive Chinese investments buoys the market
7.3. Learning curve of PV
7.4. The large-scale loans made available to Chinese producers between 2010 and 2012, establishing the financial basis for the expansion of production capacity.
7.4. China takes markets to new heights but have the changes in FiTs finally cooled it down?
7.5. Conductive pastes in the PV sectors
7.5. List of companies that went bankrupt, closed, restructured or sold equity at discount prices during the consolidation period.
7.6. Shipped production for the top 10 suppliers of solar cells.
7.6. Alternative and improved metallization techniques
7.7. Silicon inks
7.7. The industry has dramatically changed over the years. US Japan and Europe have lost their leading positions at various times whereas Japan has risen.
7.8. Production in GW of solar energy by China-Taiwan, Japan, Europe, North America and Row between 2005 and 2017
7.8. Copper metallization in solar cells
7.9. Trends and changes in solar cell architecture
7.9. Comparing production volumes, measured in megawatts, of different solar cells technologies in 2013(red bars) and 2014 (blue bars).
7.10. Market share of different PV technologies: Si (wafer-based), a-Si, Cd-Te and CIGS
7.10. Market dynamics
7.11. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive paste in solar cells
7.11. Cost breakdown of a typical wafer-based silicon solar cells.
7.12. The cost of silver conductive paste as an overall portion of the energy-generation cost of a silicon PV (in cents per watt peak) as a function of time.
7.12. Silver nanoparticles are finally adopted in the thin film photovoltaic business?
7.13. Annual GW PV installation by year by region between 2005 to 2020
7.14. Stock price of largest PV manufacturers worldwide
7.15. Table outlining the changes in China's Feed-in-Tariffs between 2016 and 2017 for different regions in RMB/kWh.
7.16. Photovoltaic market forecasts
7.17. Screen printed conductive lines on a typical wafer-based silicon PV.
7.18. The production process for a silicon PV showing when metallization and curing (firing) takes place
7.19. Typical curing profile of firing-type conductive pastes used in the photovoltaic industry.
7.20. Silver content per cell as a function of time. These are IDTechEx projections and underpin our market forecasts. We are more conservative that industry projections on how much silver consumption per cell can be reduced. The techno
7.21. Projections reductions in silver consumption per wafer by ITRPV over the years. The projections are for years 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. It demonstrates the difficulty in predicting future silver consumption per wafer even
7.22. The reduction in the silver content is made by possible by innovation in inks.
7.23. Survey results showing what the industry expected in the next decade
7.24. Predicted trend for minimum as-cut wafer thickness
7.25. Latest industry roadmap for different metallization technofixes
7.26. Benefits of a silicon ink in improving solar cell efficiency
7.27. Methods of plating the metallization layers: (1) thickening a screen printed Ag line with; (2) direct plating on Si.
7.28. Current efficiency of select commercial PV modules.
7.29. Market share of different silicon solar cell architectures/technologies
7.30. Comparing the BSF and PERC cell architecture
7.31. 2019-2029 market forecasts for conductive pastes in wafer-based Si photovoltaic in tons and value.
7.32. Describing the basics and production process behind CIGS technology.
8.1. De-misters or de-foggers
8.1. Existing and emerging use cases of conductive inks in the interior and exterior of cars
8.2. Comparing the performance of a standard conductive paste as a de-froster when deposited on a PC and a glass substrate.
8.2. Laser transfer printing as a new process?
8.3. Transparent conductors as replacement for printed heaters?
8.3. Ten-year market forecast for conductive paste used in de-foggers
8.4. Laser transfer printing process
8.4. Car seat heaters
8.5. Seat sensors
8.5. Structure of a typical printed seat heater
8.6. PTC carbon inks with Ag bus bars to form a heater.
8.6. High power electronics represent a major growth opportunity
8.6.1. A few words on LTCC
8.7. Resistance vs temperature behaviour of a PTF carbon ink
8.8. Ten-year market forecasts for the use of conductive inks (carbon plus silver) in car seat heaters
8.9. Operation of a FSR
8.10. Response curve of a typical FSR from IEE. Product name: CP 149 Sensor
8.11. Examples of FSR individual sensors from IEE
8.12. Ten-year market forecasts for the use of conductive inks and pastes as occupancy sensors in cars.
9.1. Narrow bezels change the market
9.1. Schematic of a touch screen system and a close-up of printed edge electrodes
9.2. The process flow for patterning photo-patterned Ag conductive pastes by Toray (Raybrid)
9.2. Laser cut vs photopatternable inks
9.3. Ten-year market projections for conductive inks and paste in the touch screen industry
9.3. Table showing the linewidth resolution of various processes used in making touch screen bezels
9.4. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in value split by touch screen device type
9.5. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in tonne split by touch screen device type
10.1. RFID market size and business dynamics
10.1. Table outlining the operational frequency and main features of each RFID tag.
10.1. Examples of RFID tags
10.2. Typical examples of RFID antennas
10.2. Average sales price of passive RFID tags in USD cents
10.2. Processes, Material Options and Market Shares
10.3. Transparent ultra low-resistivity RF antenna using printed metal mesh technology
10.3. The approximate cost breakdown of different components in a typical UHF RFID tag
10.4. RFID tag figures and ten-year forecasts by application in billion USD
10.4. Ten-year market projections for conductive inks in UHF and HF RFID antennas
10.5. Cost estimates for making RFID antennas using different production processes
10.6. A Suica transit card widely used in Japan's transport network. The antenna consist of a printed silver conductive track
10.7. Comparing the printing speed, thickness and applications of different printing techniques
10.8. Schematics of different printing processes used in RFID antenna production
10.9. Examples of printed RFID antennas.
10.10. Examples of printed transparent antenna using printed metal mesh technology
10.11. Ten year market forecast for the use of conductive inks in UHF RFID antennas split by ink type (Cu, Ag (micron), and Ag(nano)).
10.12. Ten year market forecast for the use of conductive inks in HF RFID antennas split by ink type (Cu, Ag (micron), and Ag(nano)).
11.1. Laser Direct Structuring and MID
11.1. Many components in a typical consumer electronics device such as a mobile phone are or can potentially be printed.
11.2. Schematic showing the sales volume of phones.
11.2. Observations on the MID market
11.3. Aerosol deposition
11.3. The production process using LDS.
11.4. A typical smartphone antenna made using LDS.
11.4. Ink requirements for aerosol printing
11.5. Others ways of printing structurally-integrated antennas
11.5. Examples of LDS products on the market.
11.6. Aerosol printing machine by Optomec. I took this photo at the IDTechEx Show! 2016 USA.
11.6. Market projections for printed 3D antennas
11.7. The aerosol deposition process and its key features.
11.8. The core components making up an aerosol deposition machine
11.9. Aerosol deposited 3D antennas directly on mobile phone components
11.10. Comparing the LDS vs aerosol processes.
11.11. (Left) An antenna dispensing machine and (right) an antenna being printed (dispensed) directly on the phone case.
11.12. Ten-year market projections for the use of conductive inks (silver nano inks) in printing 3D antennas.
12.1. Automotive
12.1. The process starts by printing on a flats or 3D substrate before being thermoformed into a 3D shape.
12.2. Examples of use case of IME technology in the automotive industry
12.2. Definition of terms
12.2. In-mold electronics in consumer electronics
12.2.1. Trend towards commercialization
12.2.2. Currently commercial examples of In-Mold Electronics
12.3. Ink requirements in In-Mold Electronics
12.3. Picture of an actual IME overhead console by T-Ink and DuPont
12.3.2. The portfolio approach is essential
12.3.3. Other requirements for conductive inks
12.3.4. Design, assembly and the need for adhesives
12.4. Suppliers of IME inks rapidly multiply
12.4. AC control unit for cars using DuPont inks. This is not yet commercial but DuPont confirms that it has two products that are close to qualification. Source: DuPont, photo taken at the Wearable Expo Japan 2017
12.5. Comparison of overhead control panels
12.5. Other materials used in in-mold electronics: the merit of a portfolio approach
12.5.1. IME PEODT
12.5.2. IME Carbon nanotubes
12.5.3. IME Metal mesh
12.5.4. Insert moulding or transfer attachment will do just fine?
12.6. Value chain
12.6. The formation of car overhead consoles using in-mold electronics is a multi-step process.
12.7. Application ideas for the use of IME technology in consumer electronics
12.7. Market forecasts for IME conductive inks
12.8. A commercialized washing machine with an IME switch board
12.9. Example of how in-mold electronics (here referred to as structural electronics) can result in the formation of simple and elegant designs.
12.10. Schematic showing how TactoTek makes its structural or in-mold electronics.
12.11. The inks formulated for IME are expected to withstand elongations as high as 60% without failure although the resistance does typically undergo change (e.g., 30% or so)
12.12. These images demonstrate the impact of ink formulation on its performance after being stretched.
12.13. Examples of IME inks by DuPont, T-Ink, Henkel, NRCC, Yoyobo, Fujikura Kasei and others
12.14. The process for IME using PEDOT films
12.15. Examples of IME PEDOT thermoformed films and some product demonstrators.
12.16. Air conditioning controller unit for a car.
12.17. Increase in resistance as a function of change in length.
12.18. Examples of thermoformed products made using a CNT-on-PC film
12.19. Examples of SWCNT and DWCNT films thermoformed into 3D shapes
12.20. Example of a 3D-shaped IME dome made using Fujifilm's metal mesh technology
12.21. Example of an IME 3D car touch screen using copper metal mesh and a thermoformed silver nanoparticle 3D surface
12.22. Example of an transferred printed functional film onto a 3D object
12.23. Ten-year market projections for conductive inks/pastes in IME automotive applications in $m and tonnes
12.24. Ten-year market projections for IME conductive inks in the home appliances in $m and tonnes
13.1. Electronic textile industry
13.1. The resistivity and loading levels of graphene inks by different graphene suppliers
13.1. Medium-term market projections for smart textiles.
13.2. Some examples of prominent e-textile products are shown in this slide.
13.2. Stretchable inks: general observations
13.3. Stretchable e-textile inks multiply
13.3. Percentage of e-textile players using each material type
13.4. Microcracks and voids appear in a printed conductive lines under stretch causing it to lose its conductivity.
13.4. Performance of stretchable conductive inks
13.5. Future performance improvements for stretchable inks
13.5. Stretchable inks containing only Ag flakes show great resistivity variations under stretch compared to inks containing a distribution of particle sizes.
13.6. Printing a typical conductor on a fabric or textile is currently a four-step process
13.6. The role of particle size and resin in stretchable inks
13.7. The role of pattern design in stretchable conductive inks
13.7. Apparatus used for laminating printed conductive films onto textiles
13.8. Examples of stretchable e-textile conductive inks from Nagase, Panasonic and Fujikura Kasei
13.8. Washability for stretchable conductive inks
13.9. Encapsulant choice for stretchable inks
13.9. Examples of stretchable e-textile conductive inks from Taiyo, NAmics, Toyobo, Jujo Chemical and Ash Chemical
13.10. Examples of stretchable e-textile conductive inks from DuPont, Henkel, Cemedine, Polymatech
13.10. The role of the substrate in stretchable inks
13.11. Applications of inks in e-textiles
13.11. Performance characteristics of conductive by Panasonic, Henkel, Fujikura Kasei, DuPont, EMS, Ash Chemical and so on.
13.12. Comparing the performance of GenI and GenII of stretchable inks supplied by the same company to track industry evolutions.
13.12. Examples of products with conductive yarns
13.13. Graphene as a stretchable e-textile conductive ink
13.13. Table qualitatively showing how resin choice affects flexibility, adhesion strenght and heat resistance. Resins considered are acrylic, epoxy, pheno, polyester, urethane, silicone and polymide type
13.14. SEM image showing a typical particle size distribution in a stretchable inks
13.14. PEDOT as a conductive e-textile material
13.15. Market projections for stretchable conducive inks
13.15. Change in resistance as a function of elongation for the same ink printed in different patterns
13.16. Change of resistance as a function of washing cycles.
13.17. TPU alternative being developed by Hitachi Chemical.
13.18. TPU alternative being developed by Showa Denko, Osaka Industry, Nikkan Industry, etc
13.19. The change in resistance with strain for the same ink printed on the same substrate with and without TPU encapsulation
13.20. Effects of straining printed lines on different substrates. The different made by the choice of the substrate is visible with the naked eye as the strain range changes from 0 to 40%.
13.21. Examples of wearable products employing conductive inks.
13.22. Example of e-textile products and prototypes by Toyobo, Jujo Chemical and DuPont.
13.23. Examples of e-textile products using printed conductive inks
13.24. Recent examples of e-textile products using printed conductive inks
13.25. Recent examples of e-textile products using printed conductive inks
13.26. Recent examples of e-textile products using printed conductive inks
13.27. Examples of e-textile sports products made using conductive yarns.
13.28. Examples of prototype of graphene inks on textile and graphene stretch sensors.
13.29. Examples of graphene-including electronic textiles
13.30. Examples of PEDOT used as a conductive e-textile materials
13.31. Ten-year market projections for stretchable conductive inks in e-textiles in $m and tonnes
14.1. Two examples of wearable devices on the right hand side
14.2. Stretchable printed circuit board following the rigid island and stretchable connector approach
14.3. Example of stretchable interconnects
14.4. Example of printed flexible interconnects for cameras in fax machines (left) and stretchable printed interconnects for ECGs
15.1. Performance of sintered Ag paste
15.1. The rise of nanoparticles
15.1. Applications and performance of different high power transistors (Thyristor, IGBT (module & discreet), IPM, GCT, etc)
15.1.2. Power electronics functions and technology trends inside electric vehicles
15.1.3. Key trends in power module materials to enable high temperature operations
15.2. Material choices for die attach pastes
15.2. Commercial progress
15.2. Electronic devices in vehicles in high temperature environments
15.3. Trend in thermal conductivity going from basic solder and low end Ag-filled epoxy to pressured or nano sintered Ag pastes.
15.3. Benchmarking different die and substrate attach technology
15.3. Supplier overviews
15.4. Sintering profile and temperature
15.4. Is Cu a viable sintering alternative
15.4. The electrical resistivity vs sintering temperature for a nano Ag based die attach paste
15.5. Impact of pressure on the compactness of the sintered paste
15.5. Prices
15.6. Market forecasts for nano or hybrid sintered Ag die attach paste in value and tonnes
15.6. Example of a sintering profile of a pressure less paste
15.7. Performance of conventional Ag based sintered die attach pastes
15.8. Comparing the thermal cycle behaviour of sintered Ag die attach paste vs high-T solder
15.9. Top image: sintering mechanism using a hybrid (nano plus hybrid) composition. Bottom: sintering process for a nano based system.
15.10. The cross section of sintered die attach paste before and after experiencing a 1000 thermal cycles
15.11. Sintered low temperature Ag die attach paste (150-170C sintering with no pressure)
15.12. Market forecast for nano or hybrid sintered Ag die attach paste in value and tonnes.
16.1. Background to EMI shielding solutions
16.1. Which chips have EMI shielding and what method has been used to deposit them
16.1. Example of conductive-adhesive paste EMI shielding tapes: film structure and an example of use case in flexible printed boards
16.2. Premium market for high EMI Shielding using PVD
16.2. Current market estimates for EMI shielding solutions
16.3. Printing or spraying conductive paste as conformal EMI shielding
16.3. Transition from metallic cans/cages to conformal coatings for EMI shielding
16.4. Why conformal on-chip EMI shielding?
16.4. Sputtering vs spraying for conformal EMI shielding
16.5. Nano vs micro inks for EMI shielding
16.5. Process flow for conformal coatings, printed or sprayed, on chips
16.6. Apparatus for spraying conformal coatings on chips
16.6. Sputtering currently dominates but printing is a major medium-term future opportunity
16.7. Numbers of suppliers working on or launching conformal on-chip EMI shielding pastes increases
16.7. Process flow for spraying coating package-level EMI shielding paste
16.8. Overcoming the sinking and agglomeration challenges in the spray tank
16.8. Has spraying package-level shielding had commercial success?
16.8.1. Jetted comportment shielding gains traction?
16.9. The challenge of magnetic shielding at low frequencies
16.9. Comparing the shielding effectiveness of a conventional vs specially formulated conductive paste
16.10. Image of chips in iphone7 with EMI shielding.
16.10. Value proposition for magnetic shielding using printed inks
16.11. Market forecasts for conductive inks/pastes in consumer electronics EMI shielding- can it be the next big market outside PV?
16.11. Duksan is actively seeing to commercialize its package-level conformal EMI shielding paste
16.12. Agfa has demonstrated an inkjet printable on-chip conformal coating
16.13. Fujikura Kasie has demonstrated its conformal on-chip EMI shielding paste
16.14. Effectiveness of copper as an electric and magnetic shield from 10KHz to 1 Gz
16.15. Attenuation of magnetic fields by metallic and ferromagnetic materials at low to high frequency ranges
16.16. Effective of conductive ink-based magnetic shields at medium to high frequencies
16.17. Market forecasts for conductive inks in EMI shielding coatings in consumer electronics
16.18. Market forecasts for Ag nano inks in EMI shielding coatings in consumer electronics
16.19. Market forecasts for non-nano inks in EMI shielding coatings in consumer electronics
17.1. Background to the PCB industry
17.1. Left: example of pre-PCV electronics wit rats nest wiring. Right: example of early PCB.
17.2. Examples of through-hole (left) and SMD PCB (right).
17.2. 'Printing' PCBs for the hobbyist and DIY market
17.3. 'Printing' professional multi-layer PCBs
17.3. Schematic using a typical construction of a double-layer (left) and multilayer (right) PCB.
17.4. Breakdown of the PCB market by the number of layers
17.4. Print seed and plate approach
17.5. Progress on seed-and-plate PCBs
17.5. Traditional PCBs are a mature technology
17.6. Production steps involved in manufacturing a multi-layer PCB.
17.6. Comparison of different PCB techniques
17.7. Market for conductive inks in desktop and professional PCB printing
17.7. PCB market by production territory
17.8. PCB design files are often sent to the other side of the world to be manufactured and shipped back
17.9. CNC machine create double-sided rigid PCB.
17.10. Left: example of a desktop printed single-sided PCB on a plastic (flexible) substrate. Right: example of a Cartesian desktop PCB printer. This company is no longer active but this demonstrates the product concept nonetheless
17.11. AgIC have developed a specially-coated PET substrate for inkjetting
17.12. Example of a bot factory machine in the IDTechEx office
17.13. Professional multi-layer desktop PCB printer by NanoDimension (beta version)
17.14. Professional multi-layer desktop PCB printer by NanoDimension (final version on sale)
17.15. Example of a multi-layer professional PCB printed using a professional desktop PCB printers.
17.16. Example of a lower cost and lower spec multi-layer professional PCB printer
17.17. Classification and structure of FPCB
17.18. Example of a PCB manufactured using inkjet printed photoresist. Here, printing replaces photolithography
17.19. seed-and-plat PCB using screen printing by Tatsutu
17.20. prototypes of screen printed seed and plated PCB with L/S 50/59
17.21. Comparison of different PCB techniques
17.22. Market for conductive inks in desktop and professional PCB printing by value
17.23. Market for conductive inks in desktop and professional PCB printing by tones
18.1. Novel approaches towards placement of complex IC with high I/O on flex substrates
18.2. Low temperature solder: overcoming a major technical barrier?
18.3. Conductive paste bumping on flexible substrates
18.4. Photonic sintering of solder
18.5. Logic and memory
18.6. Metallization trends: towards fine-feature high-conductivity metallization on low-temperature substrates
18.7. Conclusions
19.1. Market forecast for transparent conductive films
19.1. Examples of application that use a transparent conductive layer (glass or film) and the performance of ITO films
19.2. Ten-year market forecast for add-on transparent conductive films split by TCF technology in sqm
19.2. Changing market requirements
19.3. Technology choice for flexible display TCFs
19.3. The sheet resistance requirements scale with the display size.
19.4. Sheet resistance requirements and efficiency of organic photovoltaic.
19.4. A brutal consolidation set in but has now ended?
19.5. Progress and opportunities for conductive inks
19.5. Sheet resistance as a function of radius curvature for ITO films. ITO cracks and its sheet resistance goes up when the film is bent.
19.5.1. Embossing followed by silver nanoparticle printing
19.5.2. Self-assembled silver nanoparticle films
19.5.3. Inkjet printed silver nanoparticles as transparent conducting films
19.6. Direct printing of fine line metal mesh
19.6. Sheet resistance as a function of bending cycle or angle for different TCF technologies such as metal mesh, PEDOT, silver nanowires and carbon nanotubes.
19.7. ITO film price drop from $35/sqm to $18/sqm in a space of two years
19.7. Direct printing can go ultra-fine feature, achieving sub-micron resolution?
19.8. Printing of metal mesh TCF using photo-patterned conductive pasts
19.8. Comparing the market forecast for medium-sized (e.g., AIOs) touch screens pre and post 2012.
19.9. Sales of TPK by touch display size.
19.9. Print seed layer and plate approaches
19.10. Direct screen printing of metal mesh films for ultra large area displays
19.10. Quantitatively benchmarking different transparent conductive film technologies
19.11. The process flow for making TCFs developed by NanoGrid based in Suzhou
19.11. UV patterned silver nanoparticle based metal mesh
19.12. Market Projections
19.12. Nanoimprint technology process flow for establishing a metal mesh with 5um linewidths
19.13. Printed silver nanoparticle inks and a large touch module
19.14. ClearJet inkjet prints drops of specially formulated silver nano inks, which then self-assemble into a pattern shown above to form a conductive network that is also transparent
19.15. Process flow for gravure offset printing metal mesh with 5um linewidths
19.16. Plastic surfaces covered with printed transparent Ag metal mesh with 5um linewidth
19.17. Further examples of directly printed fineline metal mesh films (Shashin Kagaku and Komori)
19.18. Direct printing achieving ultrafine features
19.19. Mould making process for enabling R2R printing to achieve ultra finefeatures using nanoinks
19.20. Printing drum, process and results for printing metal mesh with nanometer scale linewidths
19.21. Metal mesh TCF made using screen printed photo-patternable conductive pastes. Here, we see linewidths as low as 3.5um, a prototype touch screen and flexibility data.
19.22. 3M large-area touch table made using 3um metal mesh
19.23. Large area touch table with screen printed metal mesh
19.24. High performance metal mesh using UV patterned silver nanoparticles
19.25. Ten-year market projections for the use of silver nano inks as an ITO replacement
20.1. OLED Lighting market dynamics and challenges
20.1. Commercial and prototype OLED vs existing (2013 data) LED performance levels
20.2. Examples of LED and OLED lighting installations showing that LED can achieve effective surface emission thanks to the use of waveguides.
20.2. OLED lighting in search of a unique
20.3. Cost projections of OLED lighting
20.3. Flexible, thin and light-weight OLED lighting products launched by LG Chem and Konica Minolta.
20.4. Cost projections in $/Klm as a function of year.
20.4. OLED lighting market forecast
20.5. Requirements from conductive inks in OLED lighting
20.5. Examples of latest OLED lighting installations in museums, nightclubs, festivals and libraries.
20.6. Ten-year market projections for OLED lighting as a function of year segmented by end application
20.6. Market projections
20.7. Structure of a typical OLED lighting device
20.8. Ten-year market projections for silver nanoinks in OLED lighting applications.
21.1. Piezoresistive
21.1. Typical construction and behaviour of piezoresistive force sensors.
21.2. The IDTechEx market and technology roadmap for piezoresistive sensors
21.2. Glucose sensors
21.3. Market forecasts for conductive inks in glucose test strips
21.3. Ten-year market projections for piezoresistive sensors at the device level
21.4. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks/pastes in printed piezoresistive sensors by value and tonnes
21.4. Capacitive sensors
21.5. Different glucose test strips on the market.
21.6. The anatomy of a glucose test strip. The working electrode here is carbon based
21.7. Manufacturing steps of a Lifescan Ultra glucose test strip.
21.8. Benchmarking printing vs. sputtering in glucose test strip product. Here, 5 refers to the strongest or highest.
21.9. Printed glucose test trip market.
21.10. Market forecasts for the use of Ag-based inks in glucose test strips (value and tons)
21.11. Printed capacitive sensors used in automotive (infotainment module) and home appliance applications.
21.12. Printed capacitive touch sensor unit aimed at first-class seats in passenger airplanes.
21.13. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks/pasts in printed capacitive touch sensors in $m and tonnes
22.1. Progress in 3D printed electronics
22.1. Ten-year market projections for 3D printing industrial machines split by SLA/DLP, extrusion, metal powder, binder jetting, etc. in annual unit sales.
22.1.1. Nascent Objects (now Facebook)
22.1.2. Voxel8 (before re-focus)
22.1.3. nScrypt ad Novacentrix
22.2. University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP)
22.2. Ten-year market projections for 3D printing personal machines (desktop machines) in annual unit sales
22.3. Plastic filaments used in 3D printing and suppliers thereof
22.3. Nagase
22.3.2. Ink requirements for 3D printed electronics
22.4. Ten-year market projections for conductive inks and pastes in 3D printed electronics
22.4. Plastic powders used in 3D printing and suppliers thereof
22.5. Examples of embedded and metallized 3D printed objects.
22.6. Nascent Objects seeks to modularize electronic components so that they can placed inside 3D printed objects and upgraded (exchanged) when new versions arrive
22.7. A Voxel8 3D printed electronics machine
22.8. A 3D printed electronics object with embedded circuitry
22.9. A 3D printed quadcopter with 3D printed embedded circuit
22.10. (Left) Photonically-cured copper in and (right) nScrypt's patented SmartPump
22.11. nScrypt 3D printed electronic equipment. This is a highly stable hybrid 3DP extruder with a paste dispenser together with photonic curing for the conductive traces. The sales price is around $0.5m per machine. I took this photo at
22.12. 3D printed electronics objects by University of Texas
22.13. Performance sheet for Nagase Ag nano ink compatible with multiple plastic substrates and suitable for the 3DPE market.
22.14. IDTechEx market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in 3D printed electronics (in tons and value)
23.1. Why large-area LED array lighting
23.1. Large-area LED arrays developed by FlexBright Oy
23.2. Printed interconnects over large areas with mounted (pick and place) LEDs for use in decorative purposes.
23.2. Examples of LED array lighting
23.3. Role of conductive inks in large-area LED arrays
23.3. Front and backside of a printed large-area LED array
23.4. Example of a flexible LED sheet
23.4. Competitive non-printed approach to making the base for large-area LED arrays
23.5. Example of LED lighting array on an etch FPCB.
24.1. Conductive pattern drawn using an ink supplier by Electronics Inks. The pen shown in the photo is the conductive ink that Sakura and Electroninks jointly developed.
24.2. Examples of applications and performance levels of a conductive ink developed by Dream Inks in China.
24.3. Colloidal's ink curing and resistivity
24.4. Example of conductive pattern inkjet-printed using an Epson printed and Colloidal's inks.
25.1. The structure of a digitizer in a mobile phone.
25.2. Value chain of printed digitizers in consumer electronics from powders to devices.
25.3. results of a 5.5inch digitizer with printed Cu lines
26.1. Comparing traditional and printing methods of manufacturing thin film transistors
26.2. Examples of printable semiconducting materials and their mobility levels for printed TFTs
26.2. Overall market situation for printed RFID logic
26.3. Market for printed backplanes for displays
26.3. Unit sales of electrophoretic displays between 2010 and 2014 showing the market downturn
26.4. Printed photo or x-ray arrays with printed backplanes
26.4. Market for printed backplanes for large-area sensor arrays
26.5. Latest progress with solution-processable metal oxides
26.5. Pressure and temperature sensor arrays with printed transistors
26.6. Publication trends for solution-processed metal oxides
26.6. Latest progress with fully printed organic thin film transistor arrays
26.7. The need for printed nanoparticle inks and the latest progress
26.7. High temperatures are often needed to anneal solution processed metal oxide TFTs
26.8. Performance and characteristics of Evonik's solution-processed metal oxide TFT
26.8. Market forecasts for silver nanoparticles in fully printed thin film transistors
26.9. Picture, application and device structure of fully-printed organic TFT array by JAPERA
26.10. Microscopic images of printed interconnects for printed thin film transistors and schematic of the printing process
26.11. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks/pastes in printed TFT/memory
27.1. Revenue and net income of Thin Film Electronics between 2011 and 2015
27.2. Counterfeiting and consumer engagement printed memory tags
27.2. Applications of printed thin film memory
27.3. The structure of printed memory and the role of printed conductors
27.3. Printed temperature sensor tag with printed memory
27.4. Image and schematic of the printed memory devices
27.4. Market forecasts for conductive inks in printed memories
27.5. Images of an actual device, printed memory role, and the process flow
29.1. Typical structure of MLLC and typical production process thereof
29.2. Material breakdown for MLLC (PME vs BME)
29.2. Material usage and price analyses for MLCC
29.3. Key powder and paste suppliers in the MLCC electrode business
30.1. Nantennas
30.1. Design and performance of frequency-selective surface and reflectarray grating with printed conductive inks
30.2. Frequency-Selective Transparent Shielding Patterns
31.1. The use of conductive inks in wearable e-reader devices
31.1. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks/pastes in flexible e-readers
31.2. Market forecasts for conductive inks in e-readers
32.1. Battery Heaters
32.1. Printed large-area battery and plant heaters
32.2. Plant heaters
33.1. (left) Optomec aerosol printing heads; (right) antennas printed on 3D-shaped objects using aerosol
33.1.1. Conformal printing
33.2. Desktop and professional single to multi-layer PCB printing
33.2. (right) industrial professional multi-layer PCB printers and (left) examples of flat and curved multi-layered printed PCBs
33.3. Replacing the switch and TCF layer with Ag NP in a capacitive touch unit
33.3. On-chip conformal EMI shielding
33.4. Sintered silver die attach pastes
33.4. Effectiveness of on-chip conformal EMI shielding
33.5. Sintered die attach paste for power modules using nano silver
33.5. Directly printed metal mesh
33.6. Hybrid (emboss then fill) metal mesh for ITO replacement
33.6. (top) supermooth R2R ultrafine metal mesh printing (bottom) S2S flexo metal mesh printing
33.7. Process for metal production using the hybrid approach
33.7. Inkjet printed metal mesh TCF
33.8. Seed layer for plating Cu films for FCCL
33.8. Inkjet printed large-area transparent conductive film with fine features
33.9. Silver nanoparticle seed layer for plating Cu films
33.9. Replacing solder balls for chip assembly
33.10. Print seed and plate in wafer-based Si PV
33.10. Replacing solder balls for chip assembly
33.11. Inkjet printed metal grids for OLED lighting
33.11. Top up conductor layer in thin film PV
33.12. Seed layer in PCB
33.13. Transistor and memory
33.14. OLED lighting
33.15. Digitizer
33.16. Stretchable and in-mold electronic inks
34.1. Agfa-Gevaert N.V.
34.2. AgIC
34.3. Bando Chemical Industries
34.4. BeBop Sensors
34.5. BotFactory
34.6. Cartesian Co
34.7. Cima NanoTech Inc
34.8. Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH
34.9. ClearJet Ltd
34.10. Colloidal Ink Co., Ltd
34.11. Conductive Compounds
34.12. Daicel Corporation
34.13. DuPont
34.14. DuPont Advanced Materials
34.15. Electroninks Writeables
34.16. Flexbright Oy
34.17. Fujikura Kasei Co Ltd
34.18. Genes 'Ink
34.19. Henkel
34.20. Hicel Co Ltd
34.21. Inkron
34.22. InkTec Co., Ltd
34.23. Intrinsiq Materials
34.24. Komori Corporation
34.25. KunShan Hisense Electronics
34.26. Lord Corp
34.27. Methode Electronics
34.28. Nagase America Corporation
34.29. NanoComposix
34.30. Nano Dimension
34.31. NANOGAP
34.32. Novacentrix
34.33. O-film Tech Co., Ltd
34.34. Optomec
34.35. Perpetuus Carbon Technologies Limited
34.36. Printechnologics
34.37. Promethean Particles
34.38. Pulse Electronics
34.39. PV Nano Cell
34.40. Raymor Industries Inc
34.41. Showa Denko
34.42. Sun Chemical
34.43. Tangio Printed Electronics
34.44. The Sixth Element
34.45. T-Ink
34.46. Toda Kogyo Corp
34.47. Tokusen USA Inc.
34.48. Ulvac Corporation
34.49. UT Dots Inc
34.50. Vorbeck Materials
34.51. Voxel8
34.52. Xerox Research Centre of Canada (XRCC)
34.53. Xymox Technologies
35.1. Advanced Nano Products
35.1. Screen Printable Silver Paste
35.1. Properties of the low-melting-point alloy before and after melting (structure and conductivity)
35.2. Electron microscope images of the Napra-developed copper paste (left) and of commercially available resin silver paste (right)
35.2. Other Silver Pastes
35.2. AIST and NAPRA
35.3. Amogreentech
35.3. Inkjet Printable Inks
35.3. Resistivity of silver and copper pastes (Commercially available copper pastes: A, B, and C; Napra-developed copper paste: D; and commercially available silver paste: E)
35.4. Resistivity vs. cure temperature for glass-coated silver nanoparticles
35.4. Applied Nanotech products
35.4. Applied Nanotech Inc.
35.5. Asahi Glass Corporation
35.5. Ferro's metal products
35.5. The annealing process and equipment used for Hitachi Chemical's inks and pastes
35.6. Performance of Hitachi Chemical's inks compared to printed circuit board solutions
35.6. Outline of Noritake product list
35.6. Asahi Kasei
35.7. Cabot
35.7. Silver and carbon pastes offered by Toyobo
35.7. The Pulse Forge principle
35.8. Copper pastes developed by Toyobo
35.8. Performance of Hitachi Chemical's inks compared to printed circuit board solutions
35.8. Chang Sung Corporation
35.9. Cima Nanotech
35.9. Flexographic formulation of Vor-Ink from Vorbeck
35.10. Packaging Natralock® with Siren™ Technology
35.10. Ferro
35.11. Giga Solar Materials Corp
35.12. Harima
35.13. Hitachi Chemical
35.14. Kishu Giken Kogyo Co.,Ltd.
35.15. Liquid X Printed Metals, Inc.
35.16. Indium Corporation
35.17. NanoMas Technologies
35.18. Noritake
35.19. Novacentrix
35.20. Novacentrix PulseForge
35.21. Samsung (former Cheil Industries)
35.22. Taiyo
35.23. Toyobo
35.24. Vorbeck
  The inks must satisfy the following conditions:





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