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空中風力発電(AWE) 2017-2027年:市場予測、技術ロードマップ、AWES、CKP、HAWP、BAT:カイト、気球、ドローン

Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) 2017-2027

Market forecast, technology roadmap, AWES, CKP, HAWP, BAT: kite, aerostat, drone

 

出版社 出版年月電子媒体価格ページ数図表数
IDTechEx
アイディーテックエックス
2017年3月GBP3,245
電子ファイル(1-5ユーザライセンス)
171 84

サマリー

このレポートは空中風力発電(AWE)市場を調査し、新しい形の高電力環境発電として注目されている空中風力発電を分析しています。

主な掲載内容  ※ 目次より抜粋

  1. エグゼクティブサマリー
  2. イントロダクション
  3. 電気力学と太陽光環境発電
  4. 主要な空中風力発電
  5. 活発な開発企業のプロフィールとプラン
  6. 過去の教訓
  7. インタビュー例:マリンクラフトでの高電力発電の懸念

Report Descriptions

This report is intended for CEO, business planners, marketing VPs, academics, legislators, commentators, investors and others seeking a balanced, easily read, latest analysis of this newly credible form of high-power energy harvesting. Its emphasis is on commercialisation and the future. Airborne Wind Energy AWE is disruptive because it is much less damaging and intrusive than the traditional wind turbine. Indeed, it is capable of much more with its uniquely low capital cost and easy transportability. That means it is more than a replacement: it is intended to creates new markets, including forming a part of modern forms of standby generator that meet impending emissions directives.

 
AWE has moved from a hobbyist curiosity to attracting around $200 million investment from giants Google, EON, Shell, Schlumberger, Tata, Softbank and others. Two years ago it was widely seen as a solution looking for a problem. However, today, aviation authorities are adapting to accommodate the needs of these kites, tethered wings, aerostats and drones whether they are intended to power a ship, a small farm or - as GW offshore arrays - supplying a national grid. Potentially, AWE will do all that with no emissions and at a fraction of the cost of the conventional wind turbines, down where wind is weaker and more fitful. Clearly things are changing and IDTechEx, after two years of interviews, visits and analysis by PhD level, multi-lingual researchers, can now make sense of it all, including giving profiles of 25 winners and losers. The report appraises what remains between the proponents and commercial success, including attracting the necessary level of next-stage finance and technical assistance. How much? When?
 
This 164 page report is replete with infographics, tables and graphs clarifying the variety of opportunity and technology grouped under the term AWE. It takes a strictly analytical rather than evangelical approach, pointing out that turbines lifted aloft by helium-filled aerostats make sense in Alaska, where solar cells are pretty useless and wind is sometimes weak. However, we counsel that those targeting cheap electricity for farmers with limited resources will have difficulty competing with diesel unless the law tips the playing field or obtaining fuel is problematic.
 
The IDTechEx approach is creative. We believe the new solar roads have a place on commercial ships polluting as much as 30,000 cars and, in tandem with AWE, we believe an electric ship could even become energy independent with zero emissions. We distinguish between AWE applications where the price of grid electricity is critical and where it is irrelevant. Learn the challenges of convincing all interested parties of the safety of these systems. Realistic and improving figures for maintenance, availability and life are crucial.
 
Impediments are appraised such an electrically launched AWE system using significant energy part of the time. We report ways of reducing the intermittency and therefore energy storage needed in an AWE system and we reveal the near-consensus concerning which designs are most predictable and controllable and we assess which proponents are the most promising investments, providing certain limitations are overcome. Learn how the technologies can be leveraged with extending solar panels on the generator and wave power in the offshore support. Could the flying device produce useful solar and wind energy? How realistic is flying much higher? What are the lessons from the proponents that have gone under? What has been said in recent conferences and interviews on the subject? Only here will you access these unique inputs: there are even a number of other IDTechEx reports and consultancy services available if you wish to drill deeper.


目次

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Background
1.2. Diesel Killer or Wind Turbine Killer?
1.2.1. Kill diesel gensets - small units, potentially disruptive
1.2.2. Kill large wind turbines - slow, incremental
1.3. Energy Independent shipping
1.3.1. Potential for multi-mode
1.4. Choice of height
1.5. Capacity factor
1.6. On-grid vs off-grid, optimal power
1.7. Technology choice
1.8. Developers
1.8.1. Most promising future AWE system providers
1.9. Investment timeline
1.10. Technology roadmap 1900-2037
1.11. Commercialisation roadmap 2017-2025
1.12. Market forecast 2017-2037
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Definition of energy harvesting
2.2. Need for high power harvesting
2.3. Characteristics of energy harvesting
2.4. Two very different AWE markets
2.5. Marine: a later option
2.6. HPEH technologies including AWE
2.6.1. Types of application
2.6.2. Technological options
2.7. EH systems
2.8. Multiple energy harvesting
2.8.1. Strong need for AWE multi-mode
2.8.2. Precedents
2.8.3. Multi-mode end game is structural electronics?
2.8.4. Powerweave harvesting and storage e-fiber/ e-textile
2.9. AWE in the big picture
2.9.1. Huge off-grid opportunity for AWE
2.10. HPEH in context: IRENA Roadmap to 27% Renewable
2.11. Electric vehicle end game: free non-stop travel
2.11.1. Dynamic charging
2.11.2. Many harvests together
2.11.3. Many other options
2.11.4. AWE and bladeless wind turbines powering vehicles?
2.11.5. Multi-mode, minimal storage
2.11.6. New storage
2.11.7. Bottom line
2.12. Simpler, more viable off-grid power
2.12.1. Transportable power source
2.12.2. Vehicles approach energy independence
2.12.3. Electric utilities being replaced
2.13. Microgrids attract
3. ELECTRODYNAMIC AND PHOTOVOLTAIC HARVESTING
3.1. Definition and scope
3.2. Many modes and applications compared
3.2.1. Options by medium
3.2.2. Examples compared
3.2.3. Photovoltaics: Natural AWE partner
4. AIRBORNE WIND ENERGY AWE PRINCIPLES
4.1. Introduction
4.2. The jargon
4.3. Favoured technologies
4.3.1. Aerostat and autogiro
4.3.2. Tethered devices
4.3.3. Passive tether formats
4.4. ABB assessment
4.5. Rotating dual kites the ultimate?
5. ACTIVE DEVELOPER PROFILES AND PLANS
5.1. Altaeros Energies USA
5.2. Ampyx Power Netherlands
5.3. AWESCO European Union
5.3.1. PhD programs
5.4. Delft University of Technology Netherlands/ Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences Germany
5.5. e-Kite Netherlands
5.6. EnerKite Germany
5.7. Enevate BV Netherlands
5.8. e-Wind USA
5.9. Kite Power Solutions UK
5.10. KiteGen Italy
5.11. Kitemill Norway
5.12. Kitenergy Italy
5.13. K-Power USA
5.14. Makani (Alphabet/ Google) USA
5.15. Omnidea Portugal
5.16. SkySails Power Germany
5.17. TwingTec Switzerland
5.18. University of Limerick
5.19. Windlift USA
5.20. Windswept and Interesting UK
5.21. Xsens Netherlands
6. LESSONS FROM THE PAST
6.1. Highest Wind USA
6.2. Joby Energy USA
6.3. Magenn Power Canada
7. EXAMPLES OF INTERVIEWS CONCERNING HIGH POWER ENERGY HARVESTING ON MARINE CRAFT
  IDTECHEX RESEARCH REPORTS AND CONSULTANCY
   

TABLES

1.1. Some challenges
1.2. Comparison of AWE developers intending commercialisation
1.3. Technology roadmap 1900-2027
1.4. Declared intentions for commercialisation and possible achievements
1.5. IDTechEx forecast of global sales of AWE systems 2017-2037 number, unit price, market value
2.1. Two addressable markets for AWE
2.2. Examples of uses of HPEH expressed as duration of harvesting available with examples of companies using or developing these applications
2.3. Comparison of desirable features of the EH technologies. Good in colour. Others are poor or not yet clarified.
2.4. Transducer power range of the main technical options for HPEH transducer technologies Source IDTechEx
2.5. Potential for improving energy harvesting efficiency
2.6. Typical power needs increasingly addressed by high power energy harvesting
2.7. Power density provided by different forms of HPEH with exceptionally useful superlatives in yellow. Other parameters are optimal at different levels depending on system design.
2.8. Good features and challenges of the four most important EH technologies in order of importance
3.1. Some modes of high power, 10 watts or more, electrodynamic energy harvesting with related processes highlighted in green
3.2. Examples of actual high power electrodynamic harvesting by type, sub type and manufacturer with comment. Those in volume production now are in yellow, within five years in grey, those with much development but no volume production
5.1. Development plan: performance table from above right 2011-2019
   

FIGURES

1.1. Conventional wind turbine compared to AWE.
1.2. How a mobile AWE generator can double as solar in sea container format
1.3. Typical wind speed vs altitude - some AWE dilemmas
1.4. Average power density at 400ft top and 2000ft bottom
1.5. On-grid vs off-grid AWE opportunity by power of unit
1.6. Ground-gen a) vs fly-gen b)
1.7. Generation a) and recovery b)
1.8. Some of the organisations that have been involved in airborne wind energy
1.9. Investment timeline
1.10. IDTechEx forecast of global sales of AWE systems 2017-2027 number
1.11. IDTechEx forecast of global sales of AWE systems 2017-2027 showing average unit price increasing due to size and power increase
1.12. IDTechEx forecast of global sales of AWE systems 2017-2027 market value
1.13. US average levelized costs for plants entering service in 2018 with IDTechEx indication of AWE targets
1.14. Conventional wind turbine sales MW yearly 1991-2007. In 2027, expressed in GW, AWE sales may reach conventional wind turbine annual sales of 1998-9.
2.1. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in marine vehicles
2.2. Ship pollution in car equivalents
2.3. Examples of applications being developed 10W-100kW
2.4. EH system diagram
2.5. Forms of multi-mode energy harvesting
2.6. Multiple energy harvesting
2.7. Examples of multiple harvesting
2.8. HPP structure
2.9. Envisaged marine application of HPP also applicable to AWE kites etc. to harvest wind and rain while creating propulsion.
2.10. Powerweave
2.11. HPEH including battery systems related to other off-grid and to on-grid harvesting market values with example of AWE in remote power microgrid
2.12. Global installed renewable energy GW cumulative, off-grid and on-grid by source
2.13. Annual share of annual variable renewable power generation on-grid and off-grid 2014 and 2030 if all Remap options are implemented
3.1. Background to PV for energy independent vehicles
4.1. AWE conference
4.2. Twind and tumbling wing aerostat concepts top and blimp version and system below.
4.3. Principle of U kite generator
4.4. Passive tether configurations
4.5. Early options for the flying device
4.6. Early Ground-Gen examples of parameters
4.7. View of AWE risks
4.8. ABB assessment
4.9. Tether drag solution
5.1. Altaeros presentation
5.2. Altaeros BAT airborne wind turbine compared
5.3. Ampyx slides - examples
5.4. Kite Power 2
5.5. E-Kite system
5.6. e-Kite system
5.7. E-kite ground station
5.8. EnerKite presentation
5.9. Functional components of the 20 kW technology demonstrator developed at Delft University of Technology
5.10. The 20 kW kite power system of TU Delft in operation at the former naval airbase Valkenburg, The Netherlands
5.11. Kite Power Kite
5.12. Laddermill cycle simulation and the maximum instantaneous power chart
5.13. Kiteplane
5.14. eWind system
5.15. e-Wind proposition hiring land from farmers
5.16. Two kite system.
5.17. KiteGen kite providing supplementary power to a ship
5.18. Parameters compared
5.19. Kitemill presentation 2015
5.20. Ground generator and kite
5.21. Kitenergy technology
5.22. Makani M600 prototype
5.23. Basis of EC FP7 HAWE program headed by Omnidea
5.24. Skysails system
5.25. TwingTec USP
5.26. W&I kite systems
5.27. PowerPlane
6.1. Joby system
6.2. Magenn air rotor system
7.1. Torqeedo 50kW outboard
7.2. SoelCat

 

 

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