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高機能リチウムイオン電池&リチウムイオン電池のこれから:より良い素材、オープンチャレンジ、ニッチ市場

Advanced Li-ion & Beyond Li-ion Batteries 2018-2028

Better materials, open challenges, niche markets

 

出版社 出版年月電子版価格 ページ数
IDTechEx
アイディーテックエックス
2018年5月GBP4,250365

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サマリー

この調査レポートは高機能リチウム電池とポストリチウム電池技術を調査し、電池性能評価や今後10年間の予測、関連企業情報などを掲載しています。
 
Report Details
 
Advanced Li-ion battery technologies are being developed all the time, but only a few make it to the mass production stage. Every other week a hot start-up announces a breakthrough technology that will revolutionise the battery industry forever. IDTechEx brings clarity in the energy storage industry with a detailed analysis of advanced Li-ion batteries and other battery technologies.
 
The truth is that battery innovation takes place gradually and long validation cycles are needed before a new material can find its way into the mainstream market. Car companies are extremely cautious when adopting new battery technologies, as they do not want to set the whole industry on a collision course because of battery-related incidents. As an example, the adoption of high-nickel-content cathode materials like NMC622 and NMC811 has long been delayed, however according to recent announcements by LGChem and rumours about the new Nissan LEAF, NMC811 may enter the market as soon as 2018. On the other hand, the Chinese government has issued policy regulations that encourage battery companies in the country to switch from LFP cathodes to others that are more energy-dense, such as NMC and NCA, the one currently found in Tesla's electric cars.
 
Figure 1: different cathode production mix in 2018 and 2028
 
Based on conversations with industry leaders and IDTechEx's own expertise, this report analyses the Li-ion industry with a critical outlook into how it will evolve over the next ten years. The report also leverages on IDTechEx's unique overview of 45 different electric vehicle categories, which include land, water, and air vehicles. These categories are used as the starting point to outline what battery chemistry will be the dominating one in forklifts, AGVs, plug-in hybrids, buses, trucks, two-wheelers, ships, drones, and airplanes. Li-ion batteries and advanced Li-ion batteries are benchmarked and compared to other battery chemistries like lithium sulphur, lithium air, sodium ion, magnesium ion, zinc- carbon, supercapacitors, zinc air, and redox flow batteries. Additional markets like consumer electronics, wearables, and stationary storage are also presented and analysed with forecasts as to which battery chemistry will prevail or establish itself in a given niche.
 
The report is complemented with 12 full company profiles, as well as dozens of case studies from leading Li-ion manufacturers like LGChem and Tesla, or materials suppliers like 3M, Umicore, BASF, SGL, and Solvay. The advanced Li-ion industry is analysed in terms of cathode, anode, and electrolyte innovation, not to mention other key components like electrode binders, current collectors, additives, and conductive agents. A thorough analysis of graphite, both natural and synthetic, as well as silicon-based anodes, lithium titanate, lithium metal; LCO, NMC, LFP, NCA, and sulphur presents advantages and disadvantages of each material from both a technological and a strategic standpoint. The report includes ten year forecasts from 2018 through 2028 that detail the market share of each material over the next decade, answering key questions like:
 
  • What applications will LFP find after new regulations in China?
  • When is it more convenient to use lithium titanate as opposed to graphite?
  • What is the state of development with silicon anodes, and will they be used in silicon-dominant or graphite-dominant blends?
  • Are solid-state batteries ready for commercial development?
 
Through primary research, technology insights, and an impressive resource base, IDTechEx has put together a unique report that details all of the above, together with our signature ten-year market forecasts and a worldwide, comprehensive overview of the battery industry of the future.


目次

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND FORECASTS
1.1. Li-ion batteries revolutionise energy availability
1.2. Why does battery innovation matter?
1.3. LIB cell cost ($/kWh) forecasts according to IDTechEx
1.4. Materials, processes, and markets for Advanced Li-ion
1.5. LIB standard chemistries in 2018, 2023, and 2028
1.6. Beyond Li-ion: new battery chemistries
1.7. Non-commercial new battery technologies
1.8. Forecasts ($B)
1.9. List of industry events mentioned in this report
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. What's the big deal with batteries?
2.1.1. What's the big deal with batteries?
2.1.2. What is energy storage and why does it matter?
2.1.3. LIB evolution over the last quarter of century
2.1.4. Prospects for Li-ion batteries
2.1.5. Challenges ahead
2.1.6. Li-ion batteries in the news
2.1.7. Better, cheaper Li-ion batteries
2.2. More than Li-ion
3. BATTERY BASICS
3.1. What is a battery?
3.1.1. What is a battery?
3.1.2. Redox reactions
3.1.3. Electrochemical reactions based on electron transfer
3.1.4. Primary (non-rechargeable) vs. secondary (rechargeable) batteries
3.1.5. Electrochemistry definitions
3.1.6. Useful charts for performance comparison
3.1.7. What does 1 kilowatthour (kWh) look like?
3.2. Energy Density
3.2.1. Energy density in context
3.2.2. Electrochemical inactive components reduce energy density
3.3. What is a Li-ion battery?
3.3.1. What is a Li-ion battery (LIB)?
3.3.2. There is more than one type of LIB
3.3.3. How can LIBs be improved?
3.3.4. Push and pull factors in Li-ion research
3.3.5. The battery trilemma
3.3.6. A quote from Thomas Edison on batteries
3.3.7. Performance goes up, cost goes down
3.3.8. General Motors' view on battery prices
3.4. Safety
3.4.1. Safety
3.4.2. Samsung's Firegate
3.4.3. The risks of a battery-intensive future
4. ADVANCED LI-ION BATTERIES
4.1. Batteries and thermodynamics
4.2. Lithium is not the only element in Li-ion batteries
4.2.1. The elements used in Li-ion batteries
4.3. Conventional Li-ion vs. Advanced Li-ion
4.3.1. Conventional Li-ion vs. Advanced Li-ion - what is the difference?
4.3.2. Summary of Advanced Li-ion technologies
4.3.3. Better batteries with a wider cell voltage
4.3.4. Better batteries with a higher electrode capacity
4.3.5. LGChem keynote at Interbattery 2017 in Seoul
4.4. Ways to get above 250 Wh/kg
5. LI-ION ELECTRODE MATERIALS
5.1. A family tree of batteries - Lithium-based
5.1.1. A peek into the Samsung Galaxy Note 7 - LIB teardown
5.1.2. A peek into Tesla's 18650 batteries - LIB teardown
5.2. Anode materials
5.2.1. Anode materials - Battery-grade graphite
5.2.2. Synthetic graphite
5.2.3. Anode alternatives - energy density vs. specific energy
5.2.4. Anode alternatives - lithium metal and LTO
5.2.5. Lithium metal - Hydro-Quebec
5.2.6. Li metal strategies - Tadiran, Polyplus, Solidenergy
5.2.7. Lithium metal needs to be handled in a dry room
5.2.8. The cost of using lithium metal
5.2.9. LTO - Toshiba
5.2.10. LTO - Nippon Chemicon
5.2.11. Anode alternatives - other carbon materials
5.2.12. Hard carbon as additive for LIBs - Kuraray
5.2.13. Anode alternatives - silicon, tin and alloying materials
5.2.14. Pure silicon, silicon-dominant, silicon-rich, graphite-dominant anode materials
5.2.15. Silicon manufacturing - Paraclete Energy
5.2.16. Graphite-dominant silicon anodes - SiLion and Black Diamond
5.2.17. Graphite-dominant silicon anodes - Nexeon
5.2.18. Silicon-dominant anodes - Fraunhofer ISE
5.2.19. Silicon-dominant anodes - 3M
5.2.20. Silicon-dominant anodes - 3M
5.2.21. Silicon-dominant anodes - Enevate
5.2.22. Silicon-dominant anodes - Amprius
5.2.23. Pure silicon anodes - Enovix
5.2.24. Pure silicon anodes - Leyden Jar
5.2.25. Silicon alloy anodes - BioSolar
5.2.26. Silicon oxide anodes - Shin-Etsu
5.2.27. The silicon anode value chain
5.2.28. IP uncertainty in silicon anodes
5.2.29. Graphene's role in silicon anodes
5.2.30. Graphene and silicon - SiNode Systems
5.2.31. Benchmark comparison of 11 Silicon-based battery companies
5.3. Cathode materials
5.3.1. Standard cathode materials - LCO and LFP
5.3.2. Cathode alternatives - NCA
5.3.3. Cathode alternatives - LNMO, NMC, V2O5
5.3.4. LMO - ZSW Ulm
5.3.5. Li-ion battery cathode recap
5.3.6. Ultra-high energy NMC - Kokam
5.3.7. Future NMC/NCM - From 111 to 622 and 811
5.3.8. NMC Cathode materials at Interbattery 2017
5.3.9. Future NMC/NCM - Hanyang University
5.3.10. Future NMC/NCM - BASF
5.3.11. Future NMC/NCM - Umicore
5.3.12. Patent litigation over NMC/NCM - Umicore vs. BASF
5.3.13. Patent litigation - the positive example of LFP
5.3.14. New cathode materials - FDK Corporation
6. INACTIVE MATERIALS
6.1. Separators
6.1.1. Separators - polyolefins
6.1.2. Separator manufacturing
6.1.3. Polyolefin separators - Celgard
6.1.4. Ceramic separators - Sion Power's Licerion
6.1.5. Ceramic coatings - Litarion, Optodot, Nabaltec
6.1.6. Ceramic coatings
6.1.7. Cellulose separators - Uppsala university
6.1.8. New battery separators - Dreamweaver
6.2. Current collectors
6.2.1. Current collectors - aluminium and copper
6.2.2. Current collectors - copper from LS Mtron
6.2.3. New current collectors - Dreamweaver
6.2.4. Porous current collectors - Nano-Nouvelle
6.3. Binders
6.3.1. Binders - aqueous vs. non-aqueous
6.3.2. Binder processing
6.3.3. Better binders - Solvay
6.3.4. Replacing toxic NMP - PPG
6.3.5. Better binders - Zeon
6.3.6. Better binders - Ashland
6.4. Solvents
6.4.1. NMP vs. aqueous processing
6.5. Conductive additives
6.5.1. Conductive agents
6.5.2. Conductive agents - Imerys
6.5.3. Conductive agents - Orion Engineered Carbons
6.5.4. Conductive agents - OCSiAl
6.6. Electrolytes, salts, and additives
6.6.1. Electrolytes - the solvents
6.6.2. Electrolytes - Ionic liquids
6.6.3. Electrolytes - conducting salts
6.6.4. Electrolyte additives
6.7. Solid-state electrolytes
6.7.1. Solid-state batteries - after the 2016 hype
6.7.2. Lithium-ion batteries vs. Solid-State batteries
6.7.3. Comparison between inorganic and polymer electrolytes
6.7.4. Inorganic electrolytes
6.7.5. Difference between inorganic and polymer electrolytes
6.7.6. Critical aspects of solid electrolytes
6.7.7. Solid electrolytes - Toyota Motors
6.7.8. Solid electrolytes - Solvay
6.7.9. Solid electrolytes - Solvay
6.7.10. Electrolytes - Solid Power
6.7.11. Solid electrolytes - Solidenergy
6.7.12. Solid electrolytes - US Army Research Lab
6.7.13. Solid-state Electrolyte Technology evaluation
7. CURRENT LI-ION VS. FUTURE LI-ION
7.1. Future Li-ion according to BMW
7.2. LGChem's view of future batteries
7.3. Battery Projects
7.3.1. ARPA-E Battery 500 Project
7.3.2. ARPA-E Battery 500 Project
7.3.3. Approved projects
7.3.4. Approved projects
7.3.5. Approved projects
8. BEYOND LI-ION TECHNOLOGIES
8.1. Is Li-ion the silver bullet of batteries?
8.1.1. Is Li-ion the silver bullet of batteries?
8.1.2. Is Li-ion the silver bullet of batteries?
8.1.3. The innovation cycle
8.1.4. Li-ion vs. future Li-ion vs. beyond Li-ion
8.1.5. There are several avenues to better batteries
8.1.6. What is the future battery technology?
8.1.7. Cathodes for post-Li-ion
9. LITHIUM-SULPHUR
9.1. Motivation - Why Lithium Sulphur batteries?
9.1.1. Operating principle of lithium-sulphur batteries
9.1.2. Advantages of LSBs
9.1.3. Challenges for LSBs
9.1.4. Challenges for LSBs - Polysulphide solubility issue
9.1.5. Challenges for LSBs - Sulphur conductivity
9.1.6. Challenges for LSBs - Anode protection
9.1.7. Solutions to LSB challenges ? electrode structure approach
9.1.8. Solutions to LSB challenges ? electrode structure approach
9.1.9. Solutions to LSB challenges ? Electrolyte approaches
9.2. Lithium-sulphur batteries
9.2.1. Lithium-sulphur batteries - Polyplus
9.2.2. Lithium-sulphur batteries - Sion Power
9.2.3. Lithium-sulphur batteries - Oxis Energy
9.2.4. Silicon/sulphur battery - GIST University
9.2.5. LSB Electrolytes - TU Dresden
9.2.6. Lithium-sulphur - Daimler
9.3. Lithium sulphur battery applications
9.3.1. Lithium sulphur battery applications - Defense
9.3.2. Li sulphur battery applications - autonomous vehicles
9.4. Lithium Sulphur value chain
10. LITHIUM-AIR
10.1. The Holy Grail of batteries - lithium-air batteries
10.2. Types of Lithium-air batteries
10.3. Aqueous LABs
10.3.1. Aqueous LABs - Polyplus
10.3.2. Aqueous LABs - Ohara Corp.
10.3.3. Aqueous LABs - Energie De France (EDF)
10.4. Non-aqueous LABs
10.4.1. Non-aqueous LABs - Oxford University
10.4.2. Non-aqueous LABs - Toyota
10.5. Technical challenges for LABs
10.5.1. Technical challenges for LABs
11. OTHER LI-BASED BATTERIES
11.1. Lithium/thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2)
11.2. Lithium/iodine (Li-I2)
11.3. Lithium/sulphur dioxide - Seoul National University

 

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